Friday, August 3, 2012

News Bulletin

The bulletin is more than a sum-total of a number of stories. The bulletin is a collective form in which the separate news items are brought into a coherent order and some relationship.

News bulletin is the transmitting time of sum-total of news stories, which is determined by media. In time of news bulletin, fresh news is presented separately in same time. Media house has mentioned certain time for regular news bulletin, but sometime in particular incident or condition, media house may broadcast special bulletin.
Skill and editorial idea should have presented by professional communicator in news bulletin. Especially, the time of news bulletin in radio is 10 to 15 minutes. Some time the bulletin has space of 5 minutes without headlines.   

Elements of News Bulletin

The headline
Main points of broadcast media are the headline of broadcast media. The bulletin, which has space of 10 minutes, is every hour news bulletin. These types of bulletin have few headlines. Commonly these types of news bulletin mentions 4 headlines. The news bulletin, which has space of 15 minutes, has 5 headlines. But some bulletin may be long, may one hour time space. We can aspect comprehensive news matter in these type bulletins. The headline is repeated in mid time of bulletin.

The body of bulletin
News anchor reads different news after reading of headline. Different news is the body of bulletin. But the anchor reads some news without headline. These types of news are based on formal program. The news will present with headline in beginning period of bulletin, which has especial news value.


The break or commercial break
News anchor stops news reading while he/she is reading news continuously in news bulletin. To stopping of news is for presentation of identity of the media. For example, if the news anchor of Radio Nepal stops the news and says this is Radio Nepal, you are listening news of 9 o'clock bulletin. It proved that the news bulletin broadcasting by particular media.  Different news bulletin may be broadcasting at same time. If there is no break listener may be in dilemma that which bulletin is broadcasting? Radio station may face this type of identity problem.
After break for identity of station, media broadcast advertisements as commercial message. Broadcasting time of new bulletin is significant. So rate of advertisement is expensive, which is casting in time of news bulletin.

The repeated headline
News anchor repeats headlines of the news before ending of news. The audiences who have not got chance to heard headline, they get chance to know about previously broadcasted news. Radio and television both media have followed this types of trend. Television shows footage of related subject matter with script and similarly radio broadcasts only the related bite of audio.

Presentation of News
News anchor present the news after preparation the news. News presentation is also an art, thus pre-exercise is necessary is this art. The news anchors are these types of journalists, who have qualification of news reading. He/she should have good pronunciation as well as presentation of feelings.
News anchoring is final stage of news oriented task of news presentation. To collecting, writing, editing than broadcasting of news are major tasks of broadcast journalism.
News anchor should be aware with language, feelings and technical part during news presentation. If something has been mistake, it may affect to the whole image of media house. Thus the news anchor should be attractive, balance, conscious and efficient with good image. He/she should be cleat that what type of matter is reading by them. The news should be read by them seriously before on air. If they do not it they may be in dilemma. Qualities of 3C are necessary to the professional communicators of broadcast media. The term 3C refers to clarity, comprehensiveness and Command. 3C is basic qualities of news anchor.
News anchor should draw attention to their respiration.  If the anchor couldn't control his/her respiration echo will be created in sound. It will not better impact to audience. In the moment of news anchoring gesture and eye contact should be balanced.
In news anchoring the anchor should give stress to significant words and sentence. But he/she should not give stress to wrong words and sentences. He/she draw attention to this idea before airing the news.

Electronic Reporting

 Broadcast journalism tends to have a more immediate feel than does print journalism, reporting things that are happening now rather than that happened earlier.  

The term electronic reporting refers to collect news for broadcast media. Radios, FM and televisions are in the categories of broadcast media. But now a day online televisions are also have been running.
We should understand about the term 'broadcast' in pronunciation of electronic reporting. Messages transmit with the help of technologies through air to audience in broadcast media. We can say electronic reporting is radio reporting and television reporting. Radio reporting concern with audio only, while television reporting concern with audio and visual.
The editor leads to print media but news chief leads to electronic media for news section. In electronic media, news is significant part as well as entertainment part is also significant as parallel part of the media. The director or station manager leads to whole part of a broadcast media.Identity or advantage of broadcast media is transmitting message to audience immediately. Print media has significant role itself, but it can't compete with broadcast media in transmitting of message immediately. Significance of electronic media is growing day by day due to expansion of technologies.
Words, sentences, music, other sounds and silences are important for the journalists who are working in radio. The messages of radio reach to audience in reasonable cost than other media. Television journalism has power to broadcast after catching audio and visual with using of camera. Studio cameras, outside broadcast cameras (OB), film cameras are used in television journalism. Visuals and audios are taken with the help of these cameras. In these tasks actively collaboration between reporter and camera person is needed.  Now a day an individual collects news with using camera his/herself.
Radio reporters go to news collection with recording devices. He/she reach to reporting field or subject matter by carrying recorder with him/her while television reporters reach to reporting field with camera person or alone with camera to take audio and visual.Pages have been separated to suitable subject matter in print media, but broadcast media do not have pages. The condition of broadcast in electronic media is called news bulletin or newscast.  
A news bulletin has space of 10 to 20 minutes. The reporters of broadcast media have to provide news to their affiliated media according to the time of news bulletin. 

Broadcast Editing

The field of broadcast journalism is comprehensive. It has an effect on national and international level from its site. So concerning part of different type of audience is very important in editing news content of broadcast media. They should spend their long time for editing to the content. If the disseminated content makes the audience dissatisfied they will turn another channel. Every news bulletin has their targeted audience. Thus news editor of broadcast media should have understanding about psychology of audience. Through different source, national and international agency and staff reporters have gathered new in broadcast media. Sometime the news, which is gathered from another radio and television have to make base for broadcast. Usually broadcast media take news from international station in the cost of international news. Such as press release, faxes, messages from telephone are also base or source of news. The news, which come from different source may edit or rewrite. Usually the news which comes from agency has been written for print media should modify to oral language. Some news may be long, it should make short and suitable by editing. The professional communicators of broadcast media should have understanding about standardizing of words counting of news, which should be in 80 to 100 words. Carefully copy editing of news is highly required in electronic editing. After copy editing, editor must decide the news is suitable or not for broadcasting. Taking part of main theme or quote of the news should be logical. At the same time, news may gather from different part of world. In this situation, editor should have decision power for selection and determine the space of important and necessary news for immediate bulletin. If the duration of tape or film is 3 minutes the editor may reduce it in 1 minute. All of this task should have done in deadline. The content may not be repeated. In the electronic broadcasting, the editor should edit the matter, which is written in paper should be matching with audio and visual.

Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Nepalese Media System and Journalism (JMC. 515)

Tribhuvan University
Master Level/II Year/ Humanities Full Marks: 100
Nepalese Media System and Journalism (JMC. 515)
Group "A"

(Long- answer Questions
1. Describe the national and international conditions in which print , audio and audio–visual media have emerged in Nepal.
2. What are the objectives of National Communication Policy, 2049 B.S. ? Why policy interventions does it make achieve these objectives?
3. Give a brief account of media regulation system in Nepal. How do you evaluate the implementation aspects of Nepalese media regulations?
4. "Nepal has made big achievements in community radio broadcasting." Do you agree?

Group "B"
5. How do production houses and broadcasting stations differ from each other?
6. What are the different kinds of broadcasting services functioning in Nepal?
7. What is the role of private sector in the development of films in Nepal?
8. Explain the present status of Right to Information in Nepal.
9. Assess the relevance of the long-term Communication Policy, 2059B.S.
10. Why has foreign investment in media been a topical issue in Nepal?

Sunday, March 29, 2009

Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)

Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Attempt any THREE questions from Group 'A' and FOUR from group 'B'
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions

1. Critically examine the role of news contents in the Nepalese broadcast
2. How do you assess the growth of daily newspapers in Nepal?
3. Discuss the principles of media pluralism.
4. Evaluate the code of conduct developed by Press Council (Nepal) for
Group B (4x7.5=30 ) Short Answer Questions

5. What are the key principles of journalism?
6. How far have the Nepalese media been able to reach the people? Give
7. Explain the role of newsreels.
8. Discuss the impact of documentary films as an information channel.
9. Examine the functioning of alternative media.
10. Write short notes on any TWO.
a. Vertical ownership b. Documentary films c. Press associations
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions
1. Discuss the role of news media in democratic participation of people.
2. Examine the financial investment climate for media houses in Nepal after
3. How do you assess the application of the basic principles of journalism
in the Nepalese media?
4. Why is radio the most relevant media for Nepal?
Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions

5. Explain media values in principle and practice.
6. What are the main stages of journalism's growth in Nepal?
7. Discuss the impact of media on society.
8. How does media contribute to informing the public accuracy and fairly?
9. Examine the practice of development journalism in Nepal, with emphasis on
illustrations and graphics.
10. Write short notes on any Two:
a. Cross-ownership b. Gate-keepers c. Newsreels.
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions
1. Discuss the factors that led to the late arrival of journalism in Nepal.
2. What are the main theories of modern journalism?
3. How has the restoration of multi-party democracy affected the growth and
development of various news media in Nepal?
4. How do you assess the application of 'ABC of journalism' in the Nepalese
Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions

5. Discuss the various stages of development of journalism in the world with
special reference to Nepal.
6. What is development journalism?
7. Why is monopoly in media against the spirit of democracy? Give examples.
8. List and elaborate the various broadcast media and their presence in
9. Examine the use and abuse of illustrations in news magazines.
10. Write short notes on any two:
a. Documentary Films. b. New sells in Nepal. c. Gate-keeping.
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions

1. Discuss media freedom, with special focus on licentiousness versus social
2. How do you take the good ethical decisions? Describe in the light of
ethical principles of journalism.
3. What is the dilemma of objectivity and subjectivity in journalism?
4. Why the use of photographs, graphics and other illustrative materials is
given priority in a magazine?
Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions

5. Media watch mechanism in Nepal.
6. Inclusiveness in media functioning and service.
7. What is gate-keeping and how it works in media?
8. Community and commercial radio.
9. Describe various types of lenses and their uses.
10. What is journalistic fairness?

Sunday, March 8, 2009

Media-imperialism Versus cultural identity

If we ask question that do the mass media produce direct, immediate and powerful influences on the audiences, then a simple yes or no answer is not possible. Sometimes the media seem powerful and sometimes not. We can see that an international 'media culture' has come to stay in which certain languages, cultures and types of story have come to find wide influences in all over the world. The mass media play a crucial role in almost all aspects of daily life in these days. The sociological significance of media extends beyond the content of media messages. Their influence is not limited to what we know. People learn and internalize some values, beliefs and norms presented in the media products. Media also affect how we learn about our world and interact with one another. They provide a diversion, a source of conflict, or a unifying force. Such impact is almost obvious when we look at the ways in which the mass media mediate our relationships.

In contemporary society, it is media that most often act as the bridge between people of different origins. The media can serve as an entertainer, informer, and also as a way to transmit values or norms. The relationship between society and the media is more complex than a simple 'free flow of information' slogan might suggest. The process of 'mass communication' is not synonymous with the 'mass media', the organized technologies that make mass communication possible. The 'mass communication' remains as an abstract concept while 'mass media' has acquired a status of reality. Globalization in the field of media is not just about the technological innovations used to communicate over long distances. In addition, and perhaps more important, it also refers to the exchange and intermingling of cultures from different parts of the world. In reality, this process is quite unidirectional. Some scholars claim that the export of American and Western popular culture is latter-day imperialism.

Though there are likely to be large differences, for instance, between media those adopt or are given a significant social, cultural or political task and those that are primarily concerned with making profits. But, both types of mass media have common characteristic in the sense that they contribute in the cultural intrusion. It is a fact that most of the media have a vested interest in the Capitalist system and are inclined to give support to its most obvious defenders. The so-called Third world countries are pawns of the western-based global media and the media are like the 19th -century European colonial powers. Some people argue that Rock music encouraged youngsters to use drugs or engage in sexual behavior.

The communication flow is one way from the powerful nations to the weak ones. The result is that Western values are imposed in an impossible-to-resist way. Scholar Herbert Schiller's view is that the Western-controlled international mass media preempt native culture, a situation he sees as robbery, just like earlier colonial tapping of natural resources to enrich the home countries. 'Influence on people' is not only the final stage in the process of mass communication but also the bottom line of public concern. It is for this reason that people are worried about the effect of western mass media influence.

Communication and culture are so closely bound together that virtually all communication engaged in by humans is culturally linked. In respect of culture, according to Dennis McQuail, the mass media constitute a primary source of definitions and images of social reality and the most ubiquitous expression of shared identity. Also, they are the largest focus of leisure time interest, providing the shared 'cultural environment' for most people and more so than any other single institution. The most fundamental questions of society- those concerning the distribution and exercise of power, the management of problems and the process of integration and change- all turn on the communication. So the one way flow of communication is dangerous. It must be changed as soon as possible. Since nothing has influenced the lives of modern human society as the mass media have, we should be much more serious about it.

The consequence of media globalization should be understood properly. We should not hesitate to accept the good aspects of media influence. We know that the media often play a significant role in the adoption of new technologies and the way they are used. Media play role in diffusion of innovations. The media also change our images and interpretations. They can also change our feelings about social issue and help in decision-making. It may tell the truth so that people would have the information that they need to be sovereign. Also, there is chance of manipulation and media-imperialism. But cultural invasion in the name of globalization and modernization cannot be acceptable. Promoting conditions for the preservation of the cultural identity of every society is necessary to enable it to enjoy a harmonious inter-relationship. There should be established national cultural policies, which should foster cultural identity and creativity, and involve the media in these tasks. Such policies should also contain guidelines for safeguarding national cultural development while promoting knowledge of other cultures.

- Nirmala Mani Adhikary