Wednesday, March 5, 2008

Hot Tips for Writing Captions

By Kenny Irby

Photo captions are integral part of newspaper story telling, but they are often the most underdeveloped element in the mix of words, graphics and photographs in a newspaper.
A poorly executed caption can destroy the message of a photo or the story package of which it is part. The reader/viewer expects nothing less than accurate, complete, and informative information, including captions.
Here are a few suggestions to follow when writing captions:

  • Check the facts. Be accurate.
  • Avoid stating the obvious. Eg. "Dennis Rodman smiles as he kicks a broadcast photographer in the groin."
  • Always identify the main people in the photograph.
  • Don’t let cutlines recapitulate information in the head or deck or summary.
  • Avoid making judgments. "An unhappy citizen watches the protest…" Can you be sure that he is unhappy? Or is he hurting. Or just not photographic. If you must be judgmental, be sure you seek the truth.
  • Don’t assume. Ask questions in your effort to inform and be specific. Be willing to contact and include the visual reporter.
  • If the photograph is a historic or file photo, include the date that it was taken.
  • A photograph captures a moment in time. Whenever possible use present tense. This will create a sense of immediacy and impact.
  • Don’t try to be humorous when the picture is not.
  • Descriptions are very helpful for viewer. Eg - The "person in black". "Standing to the left of sofa" (Photographers must ferret out of this kind of material)
  • Be willing to allow for longer captions when more information will help the reader/viewer understand the story and situation.
  • Use commas to set off directions from the captions to the picture. Eg " GP Koirala, left from….."
  • Quotes can be an effective device, be willing to use them when they work.
  • Conversational language works best. Don’t use clichés. Writer the captions as if you're telling a family member a story.

  • Mass communication

    Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of various means by which individuals and entities relay information to large segments of the population all at once through mass media. It is usually understood to relate to newspaper and magazine publishing, radio, television, and film, as they are used both for disseminating news and for advertising.

    Mass communication research includes media institutions and processes, such as diffusion of information, and media effects, such as persuasion or manipulation of public opinion.

    With the Internet's increased role in delivering news and information, mass communication studies -- and media organizations -- have increasingly focused on the convergence of publishing, broadcasting and digital communication.

    The term 'mass' denotes great volume, range or extent (of people or production) and reception of messages. The important point about 'mass' is not that a given number of individuals receives the products, but rather that the products are available in principle to a plurality of recipients.

    The term 'mass' suggests that the recipients of media products constitute a vast sea of passive, undifferentiated individuals. This is an image associated with some earlier critiques of 'mass culture' and Mass society which generally assumed that the development of mass communication has had a largely negative impact on modern social life, creating a kind of bland and homogeneous culture which entertains individuals without challenging them. However, with the advancement in Media Technology, people are no longer receiving gratification without questioning the grounds on which it is based.[1] Instead, people are engaging themselves more with media products such as computers, cell phones and Internet. These have gradually became vital tools for communications in society today.

    The aspect of 'communication' refers to the giving and taking of meaning, the transmission and reception of messages. The word 'communication' is really equated with 'transmission', as viewed by the sender, rather than in the fuller meaning, which includes the notions of response, sharing and interaction. Messages are produced by one set of individuals and transmitted to others who are typically situated in settings that are spatially and temporally remote from the original context of production. Therefore, the term 'communication' in this context masks the social and industrial nature of the media, promoting a tendency to think of them as interpersonal communication.Furthermore, it is known that recipients today do have some capacity to intervene in and contribute to the course and content of the communicative process. They are being both active and creative towards the messages that they are conveyed of. With the complement of the cyberspace supported by the Internet, not only that recipients are participants in a structured process of symbolic transmission, constraints such as time and space are reordered and eliminated.

    'Mass communication' can be seen as institutionalized production and generalized diffusion of symbolic goods via the fixation and transmission of information or symbolic content. It is known that the systems of information codification has shifted from analog to digital.This has indeed advanced the communication between individuals. With the existence of Infrared, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, cell phones are no longer solely a tool for audio transmission. We can transfer photos, music documents or even games and email at any time and anywhere. The development of media technology has indeed advanced the transmission rate and stability of information exchange.

    Retrieved from Wiki


    Course of Study +2

    Introduction to Photojournalism, Handling a camera, Use of Pictures, Tips for Better Pictures and Preparing Photos for Photography.


    Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism which deals with the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication/ broadcast through photograph/camera. Photojournalist captures images from particular spot of event, in order to tell a news story. As well as sell a story. If a photographer snaps the shot to gather information and after completing journalistic process it appears on newspaper, magazine and news portals that is photojournalism. But if one snaps for own collection or to illustrate his website that is not photojournalism. It’s a part of visual journalism but it refers only to still images, generally photograph is used on print and online but in some cases broadcast too. It is distinguished from other close branches of photography (such as documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by the qualities of:

    Timeliness — the images have meaning in the context of a published chronological record of events.
    Objectivity — the situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict.
    Narrative — the images combine with other news elements, to inform and give insight to the viewer or reader.

    Photojournalists must make decisions instantly and carry photographic equipment, often while exposed to the same risks (war, rioting, etc.). Photojournalism as a descriptive term often implies the use of a certain bluntness of style or approach to image-making. The photojournalist approach to candid photography is becoming popular as a unique style of commercial photography. For example, many wedding ceremonies today are shot in photojournalism style resulting in candid images that chronicle the events of the wedding day.A similar and related term fit it, is reportage.


    The invention of the term photojournalism is often attributed to Cliff Edom (1907–1991), who taught at the University of Missouri, School of Journalism for 29 years. Edom established the first photojournalism program there, and created the Missouri Photographic Workshop in 1946. Edom said, during the judging of the 1989 Pictures of the Year Contest (which he also founded), that the then-Dean of the School of Journalism, Frank L. Mott actually coined the word.


    The practice of illustrating news stories with photographs was made possible by printing and photography innovations that occurred between 1880 and 1897. While newsworthy events were photographed as early as the 1850s, printed news stories were illustrated with wood engravings exclusively until the 1880s. News photographs had to be re-interpreted by an engraver before publication in order to be compatible with the printing presses of the time.

    The pioneering battlefield photographs from the Crimean War (1853 to 1856) by British press reporters such as William Simpson of the Illustrated London News and Roger Fenton were published as engravings. Similarly, the American Civil War photographs of Matthew Brady were engraved before publication in Harper's Weekly. Because the public craved more realistic representations of news stories, it was common for newsworthy photographs to be exhibited in galleries or to be copied photographically in limited numbers.

    On March 4, 1880, The Daily Graphic (New York) published the first halftone (rather than engraved) reproduction of a news photograph. Further innovations followed. In 1887, flash powder was invented, enabling journalists such as Jacob Riis to photograph informal subjects indoors. By 1897, it became possible to reproduce halftone photographs on printing presses running at full speed.

    Despite these innovations, limitations remained, and many of the sensational newspaper and magazine stories in the period from 1897 to 1927 were illustrated with engravings. In 1921, the Wirephoto made it possible to transmit pictures almost as quickly as news itself could travel. However, it was not until development of the commercial 35mm Leica camera in 1925, and the first flash bulbs between 1927 and 1930 that all the elements were in place for a "golden age" of photojournalism.

    Golden age

    In the "golden age" of photojournalism (1930s–1950s), some magazines (Picture Post (London), Paris Match (Paris), Life (USA), Sports Illustrated (USA)) and newspapers (The Daily Mirror (London), The Daily Graphic (New York)) built their huge readerships and reputations largely on their use of photography, and photographers such as Robert Capa, Alfred Eisenstaedt, Margaret Bourke-White and W. Eugene Smith became well-known names.

    Until the 1980s, largest newspapers were printed with turn-of-the-century “letterpress” technology using easily smudged oil-based ink, off-white, low-quality “newsprint” paper, and coarse engraving screens. While letterpresses produced legible text, the photoengraving dots that formed pictures often bled or smeared and became fuzzy and indistinct. In this way, even when newspapers used photographs well — a good crop, a respectable size — murky reproduction often left readers re-reading the caption to see what the photo was all about. Not until the 1980s had a majority of newspapers switched to “offset” presses that reproduce photos with fidelity on better, whiter paper.

    By contrast Life, one of America’s most popular weekly magazines from 1936 through the early 1970s, was filled with photographs reproduced beautifully on oversize 11×14-inch pages, using fine engraving screens, high-quality inks, and glossy paper. Life often published a United Press International (UPI) or Associated Press (AP) photo that had been first reproduced in newspapers, but the quality magazine version appeared to be a different photo altogether.

    In large part because their pictures were clear enough to be appreciated, and because their name always appeared with their work, magazine photographers achieved near-celebrity status. Life became a standard by which the public judged photography, and many of today’s photo books celebrate “photojournalism” as if it had been the exclusive province of near-celebrity magazine photographers.

    The Best of Life (1973), for example, opens with a two-page (1960) group shot of 39 justly famous Life photographers. But 300 pages later, photo credits reveal that scores of the photos among Life’s “best” were taken by anonymous UPI and AP photographers.

    Thus even during the golden age, because of printing limitations and the UPI and AP syndication systems, many newspaper photographers labored in relative obscurity.

    Since the late 1970s, photojournalism and documentary photography have increasingly been accorded a place in art galleries alongside fine art photography. Luc Delahaye, Lauren Greenfield and Chien-Chi Chang are among many who regularly exhibit in galleries.

    एक जना निकै प्रसिद्ध र शुरुका फोटो पत्रकार हेनरी कार्टीए व्रेशनले सन् १९३०मा अत्यन्त महत्वपूर्ण पल (Decisive moment) को प्रयोग कसरी गर्न सकिन्छ र यसको पहत्व फोटो पत्रकारितामा कस्तो हुन्छ भन्ने कुराको उदाहरण पेश गरे। यो क्षण फोटो पत्रकारिताको सबैभन्दा महत्वपूर्ण क्षण हो। कहाँ कतिखेर के हुन्छ भन्ने थाहा हुँदैन तैपनि केही पूर्वानुमान तथा अत्यन्त चनाखो अवस्था वा सतर्कताले कुनै अत्यन्त महत्वका घटनाहरूको तस्वीर लिन सकिने क्षण र यस्तो महत्वपूर्ण क्षणको प्रयोग गर्न जान्नु वा सक्नु नै सफल फोटो पत्रकारको पहिचान हो।

    Photojournalism in Nepal

    नेपालमा फोटोग्राफी भित्रिएको धेरै वर्षपछि फोटोपत्रकारिताको सुरूवात भएको हो। वि. स.१९८४ वैशाख १३ गतेको गोरखापत्रमा प्रथमपटक वीरगञ्जकी एक महिलाले चर्खाद्वारा धागो कातिरहेको फोटो छापिएको थियो। पत्रिकाको लागि फोटोग्राफर राख्‍ने प्रचलन पनि गोरखापत्रले शुरू गरेको थियो। तर यो त्यति लोकप्रिय भने बन्न सकेन। खासगरी काठको ब्लक बनाउनलाई समस्या थियो र कतिपय ब्लकहरू बनारसबाट बनेर आउने गर्थ्यो र यहाँ छापिन्थ्यो। २०१० अषाढ ४ गते क्याप्सन विना नै राजा त्रिभुवन र मातृकाप्रसादले रेडियो भाषण दिएको फोटो छापिएको देखिन्छ। यस वेलासम्म नेपाली पत्रपत्रिकामा छापिने तस्बिरहरूमा विरलै मात्रामा क्याप्सनहरू देख्‍न सकिन्थ्यो।

    पत्रपत्रिकाहरूमा फोटो निकै कम छापिने गर्थ्यो। हालखबर पत्रिकाले पत्रिकामा काम गर्ने कर्मचारी तथा प्रकाशकहरूको फोटो छापेको थियो जसको तस्बिर मदनमणि दीक्षितले लिनु भएको थियो। त्यसैगरि दीक्षितले नै सम्पादन गर्ने गरेको समीक्षा साप्ताहिकमा दीक्षितले नै खिच्नु भएका तस्बिरहरू छापिने गर्थ्यो। तर यस्ता तस्बिरहरूको मात्रा भने निकै कम हुने गर्थ्यो। यसरी हेर्दा मदनमणि दीक्षितलाई नै नेपालको प्रथम फोटोपत्रकारका रूपमा लिन सकिन्छ तर यसका सन्दर्भमा विस्तृत अध्ययन भएको भने देखिँदैन।

    Professional organizations

    The Danish Union of Press Photographers (Pressefotografforbundet) was the first national organization for newspaper photographers in the world. It was founded in 1912 in Denmark by six press photographers in Copenhagen. Today it has nearly 800 members.

    The National Press Photographers Association (NPPA) was founded in 1946 in the U.S., and has about 12,000 members. Others around the world include the British Press Photographers Association (BPPA) founded in 1984, then relaunched in 2003, and now have around 450 members. Hong Kong Press Photographers Association (1989), Northern Ireland Press Photographers Association (2000), Pressfotografernas Klubb (Sweden, 1930), and PK — Pressefotografenes Klubb (Norway) are some examples. In Nepal some acting photojournalist has established Nepal Photo Patrakar Sangh.

    Ethical and legal considerations

    Photojournalism works within the same ethical approaches to objectivity which is applied by other journalists. What to shoot, how to frame and how to edit are constant considerations. Often, ethical conflicts can be mitigated or enhanced by the actions of a sub-editor or picture editor, who takes control of the images once they have been delivered to the news organisation. The photojournalist often has no control as to how images are ultimately used.

    The emergence of digital photography offers whole new realms of opportunity for the manipulation, reproduction, and transmission of images. It has inevitably complicated many of the ethical issues involved. The U.S. National Press Photographers Association, and other professional organizations, maintains codes of ethics to specify approaches to these issues. Major ethical issues are often inscribed with more or less success into law. Laws regarding photography can vary significantly from nation to nation. The legal situation is further complicated when one considers that photojournalism made in one country will often be published in many other countries.

    In Nepal, there is no clear ethical consideration for Press Photographer. They are enjoying freedom as print and broadcast journalist. There is Journalist Code of Conduct 2060 (Patrakar Aachar Samhita, 2060) also.

    The impact of new technologies

    Small, light cameras greatly enhanced the role of the photojournalist. Since the 1960s, motor drives, electronic flash, auto-focus, better lenses and other camera enhancements have made picture taking easier. New digital cameras free photojournalists from the limitation of film roll length, as hundreds of images can be stored on a single microdrive or memory card.

    Content remains the most important element of photojournalism, but the ability to extend deadlines with rapid gathering and editing of images has brought significant changes. As recently as 15 years ago, nearly 30 minutes were needed to scan and transmit a single color photograph from a remote location to a news office for printing. Now, equipped with a digital camera, a mobile phone and a laptop computer, a photojournalist can send a high-quality image in minutes, even seconds after an event occurs. Video phones and portable satellite links increasingly allow for the mobile transmission of images from almost any point on the earth.

    There is some concern by news photographers that the profession of photojournalism as it is known today could change to such a degree that it is unrecognizable as image-capturing technology naturally progresses. There is also concern that fewer print publications are commissioning serious photojournalism on timely issues.


    Photography is the process of making pictures by means of the action of capturing light on a film. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects are recorded onto a sensitive medium or storage chip through a timed exposure. The process is done through mechanical, chemical or digital devices known as cameras. The word comes from the Greek words φως phos ("light"), and γραφις graphis ("stylus", "paintbrush") or γραφη graphê, together meaning "drawing with light" or "representation by means of lines" or "drawing." Traditionally the product of photography has been called a photograph. The term photo is an abbreviation; many people also call them pictures. In digital photography, the term image has begun to replace photograph. (The term image is traditional in geometric optics.)

    Handling a Camera

    A camera is a device used to capture images, either as still photographs or as sequences of moving images. The term as well as the modern-day camera evolved from the Latin Camera Obscura and the Arabic word قمرة for "dark chamber" for an early mechanism of projecting images where an entire room functioned as a real-time imaging system.

    Cameras may work with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. A camera generally consists of an enclosed hollow with an opening (aperture) at one end for light to enter, and a recording or viewing surface for capturing the light at the other end. Most cameras have a lens positioned in front of the camera's opening to gather the incoming light and focus all or part of the image on the recording surface. The diameter of the aperture is often controlled by a diaphragm mechanism, but some cameras have a fixed-size aperture.

    Photographers control the camera and lens to expose the light recording material (usually film or a charge-coupled device; a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor may also be used) to the required amount of light. After processing, this produces an image.

    Parts of Camera
    फिल्म एडभान्स लिभर (Film-Advance Lever) फिल्मलाई अघिल्तिर धकेल्नको लागि एउटा लिभरको व्यवस्था गरिएको हुन्छ, जसलाई दाहिने हातको बूढी औंलाले घुमाउन सकिन्छ।
    अपरेटिङ्ग बटन (Operating Button) यसलाई सटर बटन तथा सटर रिलिज बटन पनि भनिन्छ। एक्सपोज गर्न वा सामान्य भाषामा फोटो खिच्नलाई यो बटनको प्रयोग गरिन्छ।
    फ्रेम काउन्टर (Frame Counter) यसले खिचिसकेको फिल्म (Negative) गन्‍नलाई सघाउँछ।जब फिल्म पूरै खिचिसकेपछि निकालिन्छ तब यो काउन्टर पुन: शुरूको अवस्थामा आउँछ।
    हट शू (Hot Shoe) यसमा फ्ल्यास जडान गर्ने गरिन्छ।
    फिल्म स्पिड विन्डो (Film Speed Window) यसमा फिल्म स्पिड सेट गर्ने गरिन्छ।
    लेन्स रिलिज बटन (Lens Release Butoon) लेन्सलाई परिवर्तन गर्नुपरेमा यो बटन दबाएर लेन्सलाई क्यामेराबाट अलग गर्न सकिन्छ।
    स्टप-डाउन बटन (Stop-Down Button) एपरचर या एफ-नम्बरको नियन्त्रणको लागि यो बटनको प्रयोग गर्ने गरिन्छ।
    फाइन्डर आइपिस (Finder Eyepiece) कुनै पनि दृश्यलाई यही भागबाट हेरेर कम्पोज तथा फोकस गर्न सकिन्छ।
    एपरचर (Aperture) यो लेन्समा रहेको गोलाकार सानो प्वाल हो। यसले प्रकाशको मात्रालाई बढाउने-घटाउने गर्छ। यसलाई एफ (F) अक्षरको सङ्केत गरिन्छ। यसलाई नियन्त्रण गर्ने रिङ्गमा अंकहरू लेखिएका हुन्छन्। जस्तै: 1.8, 2, 3.5, 4,8,16,22
    शटर (Shutter) यसले क्यामेरामा रहेको पर्दाको माध्यमद्वारा बाहिरबाट आएको प्रकाशलाई कति समयसम्म फिल्मको पातामा एक्सपोज गर्ने हो, सोको नियन्त्रण गर्ने गर्छ। यसलाई अङ्ग्रेजी अक्षर एस (S) ले सङ्केत गर्ने गरिन्छ। जस्तै: 1s/1,, 1s/15, 1s/30, 1s/60,1s/125,1s/250 आदि। एस (S) भन्नाले एक सेकेण्ड हो। त्यसैले यी सबै अंकहरू एक सेकेण्डको अनुपातहरू हुन्।
    लेन्स (Lens) यो क्यामेराको अगाडिको भागमा जोडिएको हुन्छ, जसबाट प्रकाशको किरण क्यामेराभित्र छिर्छ।
    रिवाइन्ड क्रान्क (Rewind Crank) सबै फिल्म खिचिसकेपछि सो फिल्मलाई यसको क्याट्रिजमा राख्‍नका लागि यसको प्रयोग गरिन्छ।
    फोकसिङ्ग रिङ्ग (Focussing Ring) यस रिङ्गलाई घुमाएर विभिन्‍न दूरिमा रहेका वस्तुको फोकस गर्न सकिन्छ।
    ब्याट्री च्याम्बर (Battery Chamber) यसमा ब्याट्री राख्‍ने गरिन्छ जसलाई आवश्यकतानुसार परिवर्तन गर्न सकिन्छ।
    ट्राइपोड (Tripod) ट्राइपोड तीन खुट्टा भएको Device हो जसमा क्यामेरा Mount (अड्याउन वा जोड्न) गर्नको लागि एउटा Screw लगाएको हुन्छ। यसको प्रयोग सामान्यतया कम शटर स्पिड मा फोटो लिन प्रयोग गरिन्छ। तर सम्भव भएसम्म सधै Tripod को प्रयोग गर्नु उपयुक्त मानिन्छ। ट्राइपोडहरू सानो देखि ठूलो र हल्का देखि गह्रौंसम्म पाइन्छ। कुनै-कुनै अवस्थामा यदि धेरै ठूलो र लामो Lens छ भने (जस्तै:- ६००, ९००mm टेलि लेन्स) यस्तो अवस्थामा लेन्सको लागि पनि ट्राइपोड प्रयोग गर्नु पर्दछ।
    ट्राइपोड सकेट (Tripod Socket) यो ट्राइपोड तथा अन्य स्ट्याण्ड क्यामेरासँग जोड्नका लागि प्रयोग गरिन्छ।
    एक्स-सिन्क टर्मिनल (X-Sync Terminal) हटशूमा फ्ल्यास नलगाई क्यामेरासित फ्ल्यास जोड्नको लागि बनाइएको इलेक्ट्रिक कनेक्टर हो
    मेमो होल्डर (Memo Holder) यसमा क्यामेरामा प्रयोग भएको फिल्मको नाम तथा ASA (ISO) आदिको जानकारीका लागि फिल्मको आवरणको एक टुक्रा राख्‍ने गरिन्छ।
    Shutter Release Cable (शटर रिलिज केवल) यसलाई Remote Shutter Release Cable पनि भनिन्छ। यो एक प्रकारको तार हो जसलाई क्यामेरामा Mount गर्न सकिन्छ र टाढैबाट दवाएर फोटो लिन सकिन्छ। यो Mechnical and Electronic दुई प्रकारका हुन्छन्। साधारणतया पूर्ण रूपमा Manual Function भएका क्यामेराहरूमा Mechanical प्रयोग हुन्छ भने Dual Function (Auto/Manual) वा Auto Function भएका SLR हरूमा Electronic Cable को प्रयोग हुन्छ। Shutter Release Cable को प्रयोग गर्दा Camera नहल्लाइकन Low Speed मा फोटो लिन सकिन्छ।
    Reflectors रिफ्लेक्टर भन्‍नाले Aluminium Foil अथवा सेतो कपडा बुझिन्छ जसले श्रोतबाट आएको प्रकाशलाई Reflect गर्न सक्छ। कुनै-कुनै अवस्थामा फोटो लिँदा Objectiveको एउटा साइडमा छायाँ (Shadow) आउन सक्छ। यस्तो अवस्थामा छायाँ परेको ठाउँमा Reflectors को सहयोगले प्रकाश पारिन्छ र फोटो लिइन्छ। कहिलेकाँही Flashको प्रयोग गर्दा पनि Reflectorsको प्रयोग गर्नु पर्दछ। कुनै वस्तुमा Direct Flash प्रयोग गर्दा Reflection ले गर्दा फोटो नराम्रो आउन सक्छ, त्यसैले Reflectors को प्रयोगले प्रकाशको श्रोतको दिशा बदल्न सकिन्छ। Reflectors मा यदि कपडाको Reflectorsको प्रयोग गरिन्छ भने त्यसले प्रकाशको Intensity घटाउँछ जसलाई Tone down भनिन्छ। तर Aluminium or Plastic Reflectors ले उही Intensity मा Reflect गर्दछ।
    Motor Driver धेरै जसो Manual Camera बाट फोटो लिंदा एक क्लिकमा एक मात्र फोटो लिन सकिन्छ तर कहिलेकाहीं धेरै वटा लगातार रूपमा फ्रेमहरू लिएर एउटा राम्रो फोटो छान्नु पर्ने हुन्छ। यस्तो अवस्थामा Motor Driveको प्रयोग गर्न सकिन्छ। यसको प्रयोगबाट प्रति सेकेण्ड १ देखि १३ फ्रेमहरू लिन सकिन्छ। तर आधुनिक Film SLR हरूमा पनि Motor Drive भएको पाइन्छ तथापि क्यामेराको मूल्य भने धेरै हुने गर्छ।
    Digital light Meter डिजिटल लाइट मिटर एउटा सानो पोर्टेबल डिभाइस हो जसले कुनै वस्तुमा पर्ने प्रकाश र त्यसबाट परावर्तित Reflect हुने प्रकाशको मात्रा देखाउँछ। यसको प्रयोगले फोटो लिँदा औसत प्रकाश कति छ र कति प्रकाशको आवश्यकता छ पत्ता लगाउन सकिन्छ।

    टिटिएल मिटर TTL meter TTL को पुरा रुप थ्रु द लेन्स हो । यसको मतलव भ्यु फाइन्डर बाट हेर्दा object देखिने फ्रेम भन्दा तल पंहेलो रंगमा सानो फन्टमा 125 5.6 100 जस्ता अंकहरु देखिन्छ त्यो नै टिटिएल मिटर हो ।

    क्यामेराले कसरी काम गर्छ?

    SLR क्यामेराको लेन्सका माध्यमद्वारा प्रकाश कसरी भित्र छिर्ने गर्छ भन्नेकुरा प्रष्ट्याउँछ।
    उक्त प्रकाश (२) मिररका मार्फत् परावर्तित भई माथितर्फ गएको छ र पेन्टा प्रिज्मको विभिन्‍न भागमा परावर्तित भइ Eye Piece तर्फ गएको छ, जहाँ Eye Piece (८) का माध्यमद्वारा कुन वस्तुको फोटो खिचिदैछ भन्‍ने कुराको जानकारी प्राप्त हुन्छ अर्थात् वस्तुको आकृति देखापर्छ र फोटो कम्पोज गरिन्छ।
    यो शटर हो जब फोटो लिनका लागि अपरेटिङ्ग बटन (Operating Button) अर्थात् सटर बटन वा सटर रिलिज बटन थिचिन्छ तब मिरर (२) माथि जान्छ र प्रकाश सिधै अगाडि बढ्छ यसक्रममा शटरखुला हुने भएकाले उक्त प्रकाश शटर भन्दा पछाडि रहने रील (४)मा गएर रासायनिक प्रतिकृयाका माध्यमद्वारा सुषुप्त तस्बिर (Latent Image) को निर्माण हुन्छ जसलाई नै पछि गएर प्रोसेसिङ गरी फोटो प्राप्त गरिन्छ।
    यो शटरको पछाडिको भाग हो जसमा (Negative Film) रील रहेको हुन्छ जहाँ लेन्स (१) बाट गएको प्रकाशका माध्यमद्वारा सुषुप्त तस्बिर (Latent Image)को निर्माण हुन्छ।

    Aperture of the lens - adjustment of the iris, measured in f-stops, which controls the amount of light entering the lens. Aperture also has an effect on focus and Depth of field.

    Shutter speed - adjustment of the speed (often expressed either as fractions of seconds or as an angle, with mechanical shutters) of the shutter to control the amount of time during which the imaging medium is exposed to light per each exposure. Shutter speed may be used to control the amount of light striking the image plane, though doing so has implications for the amount of motion blur visible in the exposed image.

    White balance -
    on digital cameras, electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock. In addition to using white balance to register natural coloration of the image, photographers may employ white balance to aesthetic end, for example white balancing to a blue object in order to obtain a warm color temperature.

    Metering -
    measurement of exposure at a midtone so that highlights and shadows are exposed according to the photographer's wishes. Many modern cameras feature this ability, though it is traditionally accomplished with the use of a separate light metering device.

    ISO ASA DIN - traditionally an indicator of sensitivity of film. Film speed it actually refers the speed of forming latent image on film. ISO ratings are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the imaging chip's light sensitivity. ASA DIN also in use same as ISO.

    Auto-focus point – is the selection of a point in the imaging frame upon which the auto-focus system will attempt to focus. Many SLR cameras feature multiple auto-focus points in the viewfinder.

    Many other elements of the imaging device itself may have a pronounced effect on the quality and/or aesthetic effect of a given photograph; among them are:

    Focal length and type of lens (telephoto, macro, wide angle, or zoom)
    Filters or scrims placed between the subject and the light recording material, either in front of or behind the lens
    Inherent sensitivity of the medium to light intensity and color/wavelengths.
    The nature of the light recording material, for example its resolution as measured in pixels or grains of silver halide.

    Remembering Camera controls are inter-related, as the total amount of light reaching the film plane (the "exposure") changes proportionately with the duration of exposure, aperture of the lens, and focal length of the lens (which changes as the lens is focused, or zoomed). Changing any of these controls alters the exposure. Many consumer-grade cameras may be set to adjust most or all of these controls automatically, with little or no input from the operator. This automatic functionality may be useful to amateur photographers, who may not have mastered the ability to expose their photographs manually.

    The duration of an exposure is referred to as shutter speed, often even in cameras that don't have a physical shutter, and is typically measured in fractions of a second. Aperture is expressed by an f-number or f-stop (derived from focal ratio), which is proportional to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the aperture. If the f-number is decreased by a factor of 2, the aperture diameter is increased by the same factor, and its area is increased by a factor of 2. The f-stops that might be found on a typical lens include 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, where going up "one stop" doubles the amount of light reaching the film, and stopping down one stop halves the amount of light.

    Exposures can be achieved through various combinations of shutter speed and aperture. For example, f/8 at 1/125th of a second and f/4 at 1/500th of a second yield the same amount of light. The chosen combination has an impact on the final result. In addition to the subject or camera movement that might vary depending on the shutter speed, the aperture (and focal length of the lens) determine the depth of field, which refers to the range of distances from the lens that will be in focus. For example, using a long lens and a large aperture (f/2.8, for example), a subject's eyes might be in sharp focus, but not the tip of the nose. With a smaller aperture (f/22), or a shorter lens, both the subject's eyes and nose can be in focus. With very small apertures, such as pinholes, a wide range of distance can be brought into focus.

    Image capture is only part of the image forming process. Regardless of material, some process must be employed to render the latent image captured by the camera into the final photographic work. This process consists of two steps, development, and printing.

    During the printing process, modifications can be made to the print by several controls. Many of these controls are similar to controls during image capture, while some are exclusive to the printing process. Most controls have equivalent digital concepts, but some create different effects. For example, dodging and burning controls are different between digital and film processes. Other printing modifications include:

    Chemicals and Process used during film development
    Duration of exposure (equivalent to shutter speed)
    Printing Aperture (equivalent to aperture, but has no effect on depth of field)
    Contrast — Dodging (Reduction in exposure of certain print areas, resulting in a lighter areas)
    Burning (Increase in exposure of certain areas, resulting in darker areas)
    Paper Quality (Glossy, Matte, Etc)

    Note: Angle of view and Shutter Speed when shooting.

    When your object is in motion you should choose fast shutter speed but when you are choosing slow shutter speed no movement on object and camera.

    According to the lens, and the conditions of lights, the most used sensitivities are:

    Lens, F/Stop Conditions of light Sensitivity
    all lenses studio, brilliant sun, sun and snow 25, 50, 64 ISO
    having a right aperture :
    2,8 or 3,5 or less -sun, flash in small part
    -clouds, aLrge part with flash
    -100 ISO

    -200 ISO

    having an average aperture :
    4 or 4,5 maximum
    -sun, flash in small room

    -clouds, aLrge room with flash

    -200 ISO

    -400 ISO

    having a limited aperture :
    4,5, 5,6 or more
    (thus majority of the compact-zooms) -sun, flash in small room

    -clouds, aLrge room with flash

    -400 ISO

    -800 ISO

    having a right or average aperture -Concert halls, night or twilight... 1600, 3200 ISO

    Uses of photography/Pictures

    Photography has gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge's study of human and animal locomotion (1887). Artists are equally interested by these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement. Military, police and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used to preserve memories of favorites and as a source of entertainment.

    Other uses:

    For identity (Citizenship, ID cards) – human, animals and plants
    To save history/digitalization of historic writings/things
    Capture personal, family memories
    For information sharing (Journalistic/Advertisement Purpose) – Publication of pictures in newspapers, online [A picture conveys more than volumes.]
    To illustrate Magazines, newspapers, online /glamour factor [Look, Life]
    Publicity, Entertainment, Modeling, Business,

    History of photography

    For centuries images have been projected onto surfaces. As argued by artist David Hockney, some artists used the camera obscura and camera lucida to trace scenes as early as the 16th century. However, this theory is heavily disputed by today's contemporary realist artists who find the device almost impossible to use. Furthermore, these artists are able to produce work of extremely realistic and accurate quality using techniques of measurement and observation passed down in generations old traditions, and not any sort of tracing. These traditions were used by the old masters in their lineage and it is not plausible that the camera obscura would have been widely used, as other freehand techniques are more accurate and very easy to use with proper training. These early cameras did not fix an image, but only projected images from an opening in the wall of a darkened room onto a surface, turning the room into a large pinhole camera. The phrase camera obscura literally means darkened room. While this early prototype of today's modern camera may have had modest usage in its time, it was an important step in the evolution of the invention.

    The first photograph was an image produced in the 1820s by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce on a polished pewter plate covered with a petroleum derivative called bitumen of Judea. Produced with a camera, the image required an eight-hour exposure in bright sunshine. Niépce then began experimenting with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light.

    In partnership, Niépce, in Chalon-sur-Saône, and Louis Daguerre, in Paris, refined the existing silver process. In 1833 Niépce died of a stroke, leaving his notes to Daguerre. While he had no scientific background, Daguerre made two pivotal contributions to the process. He discovered that exposing the silver first to iodine vapour, before exposure to light, and then to mercury fumes after the photograph was taken, could form a latent image. Bathing the plate in a salt bath then fixes the image. In 1839 Daguerre announced that he had invented a process using silver on a copper plate called the Daguerreotype. A similar process is still used today for Polaroids. The French government bought the patent and immediately made it public domain.

    William Fox Talbot had earlier discovered another means to fix a silver process image but had kept it secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention Talbot refined his process, so that it might be fast enough to take photographs of people. By 1840, Talbot had invented the calotype process. He coated paper sheets with silver chloride to create an intermediate negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype a calotype negative could be used to reproduce positive prints, like most chemical films do today. Talbot patented this process, which greatly limited its adoption. He spent the rest of his life in lawsuits defending the patent until he gave up on photography. Later George Eastman refined Talbot's process, which is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.

    In 1851 Frederick Scott Archer invented the collodion process. Photographer and children's author, Lewis Carroll, used this process.

    Slovene Janez Puhar invented the technical procedure for making photographs on glass in 1841. The invention was recognized on July 17 1852 in Paris by the Académie Nationale Agricole, Manufacturière et Commerciale.

    Herbert Bowyer Berkeley experimented with his own version of collodian emulsions after Samman introduced the idea of adding dithionite to the pyrogallol developer. Berkeley discovered that with his own addition of sulphite, to absorb the sulphur dioxide given off by the chemical dithionite in the developer, that dithionite was not required in the developing process. In 1881 he published his discovery. Berkeley's formula contained pyrogallol, sulphite and citric acid. Ammonia was added just before use to make the formula alkaline the new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.


    The Daguerreotype proved popular in responding to the demand for portraiture emerging from the middle classes during the Industrial Revolution. This demand that could not be met in volume and in cost by oil painting, added to the push for the development of photography. Daguerreotypes, while beautiful, were fragile and difficult to copy. A single photograph taken in a portrait studio could cost USD $1,000 in 2006 dollars. Photographers also encouraged chemists to refine the process of making many copies cheaply, which eventually led them back to Talbot's process.

    Ultimately, the modern photographic process came about from a series of refinements and improvements in the first 20 years. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. In July of 1888 Eastman's Kodak camera went on the market with the slogan "You press the button, we do the rest". Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of Kodak Brownie.

    Since then color film has become standard, as well as automatic focus and automatic exposure. Digital recording of images is becoming increasingly common, as digital cameras allow instant previews on LCD screens and the resolution of top of the range models has exceeded high quality 35 mm film while lower resolution models have become affordable. For the enthusiast photographer processing black and white film, little has changed since the introduction of the 35mm film Leica camera in 1925.

    Economic history

    A photographer appears to be photographing himself in a 19th century photographic studio. c. 1893

    In the nineteenth century, photography developed rapidly as a commercial service. End-user supplies of photographic equipment accounted for only about 20% of industry revenue.

    With the development of digital technologies and of communications devices, such as camera phones, understanding the economics of image use is becoming increasingly important for understanding the evolution of the communications industry as a whole.

    Photography types

    Color photography

    Color photography was explored throughout the 1800s. Initial experiments in color could not fix the photograph and prevent the color from fading. The first permanent color photo was taken in 1861 by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell.

    One of the early methods of taking color photos was to use three cameras. Each camera would have a color filter in front of the lens. This technique provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image in a darkroom or processing plant. Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii developed another technique, with three color plates taken in quick succession.

    Practical application of the technique was held back by the very limited color response of early film; however, in the early 1900s, following the work of photo-chemists such as H. W. Vogel, emulsions with adequate sensitivity to green and red light at last became available.

    The first color film, Autochrome, invented by the French Lumière brothers, reached the market in 1907. It was based on a 'screen-plate' filter made of dyed dots of potato starch, and was the only color film on the market until German Agfa introduced the similar Agfacolor in 1932. In 1935, American Kodak introduced the first modern ('integrated tri-pack') color film, Kodachrome, based on three colored emulsions. This was followed in 1936 by Agfa's Agfacolor Neue. Unlike the Kodachrome tri-pack process the colour couplers in Agfacolor Neue were integral with the emulsion layers, which greatly simplified the film processing. Most modern color films, except Kodachrome, are based on the Agfacolor Neue technology. Instant color film was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

    As an interesting side note, the inventors of Kodachrome, Leopold Mannes and Leopold Godowsky, Jr. were both accomplished musicians. Godowsky was the brother-in-law of George Gershwin and his father was Leopold Godowsky, one of the world's greatest pianists.

    Color photography may form images as a positive transparency, intended for use in a slide projector or as color negatives, intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photoprinting equipment.

    Digital Photography

    Traditional photography was a considerable burden for photographers working at remote locations (such as press correspondents) without access to processing facilities. With increased competition from television there was pressure to deliver their images to newspapers with greater speed. Photo-journalists at remote locations would carry a miniature photo lab with them and some means of transmitting their images down the telephone line. In 1981 Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a CCD for imaging, and which required no film -- the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica did save images to disk, the images themselves were displayed on television, and therefore the camera could not be considered fully digital. In 1990, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital camera. Its cost precluded any use other than photojournalism and professional applications, but commercial digital photography was born.

    Digital imaging uses an electronic sensor such as a charge-coupled device to record the image as a piece of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. Some other devices, such as cell phones, now include digital imaging features. Even though there are no chemical processes, a digital camera captures a frame of whatever it happens to be pointed at, which can be viewed later.

    Although at first glance digital imaging appears to be photography, and even meets some of the criteria to be defined as such, it is fundamentally different. The primary difference lies in that photography inherently resists manipulation due to the fact that it is an analog process involving film, optics and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium since it is purely digital from the beginning. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing which is impossible in photography, and thus the distinction has less to do with visual dissimilarities, and far more to do with their quite different communicative potentials and applications.

    Digital imaging is replacing photography in the consumer and professional markets at a rapid pace. In 10 years, digital point and shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products. These digital cameras now outsell film cameras, and many include features not found in film cameras such as the ability to shoot video and record audio. Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer produce reloadable 35 mm cameras after the end of that year. This was interpreted as a sign of the end of film photography. However, Kodak was at that time a minor player on the reloadable film cameras market. In January 2006 Nikon followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras, they will continue to produce the low-end Nikon FM10, and the high-end Nikon F6. On May 25, 2006 Canon announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras.

    The price of 35 mm and APS compact cameras has dropped, probably due to direct competition from digital and the resulting growth of the offer of second-hand film cameras.

    Because photography is popularly synonymous with truth ("The camera doesn't lie"), digital imaging has raised many ethical concerns. Many photojournalists have declared they will not crop their pictures, or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make "illustrations," passing them as real photographs. Many courts will not accept digital images as evidence because of their inherently manipulative nature. Today's technology has made picture editing relatively easy for even the novice photographer. Even beginners can easily edit color, contrast, exposure and sharpness with the click of a mouse, whereas those same procedures would have taken an extensive amount of time in a traditional darkroom.

    Tips for Better Pictures:

    Do not forget you are going to convey a message through your photograph. So, Compose pictures that gets attention and delivers your message.

    In general, good pictures result from careful attention to some basic elements of composition, together with appropriate lighting and an interesting subject. There is, however, no "right" way to take a picture. Three photographers recording the same scene may create equally appealing photographs with entirely different composition.

    The important question for you is -
    "What message do you want your picture to deliver?"

    Here are a few basic guidelines: Rules of Composition of a Photograph.

    Point of Interest
    Identify a primary point of interest before taking the picture. When you’ve determined which area is the most important to you, you can compose to emphasize it. (Studying advertising photographs is a good way to get acquainted with emphasis in composition.)


    Be sure that only the things you want the viewer to see appear in the picture. If there are numerous objects cluttering up the background, your message will be lost. If you can’t find an angle or framing to isolate your subject, consider using depth of field control to keep the background out of focus.

    A light subject will have more impact if placed against a dark background and vice versa. Contrasting colors may be used for emphasis, but can become distracting if not considered carefully.


    Generally, asymmetric or informal balance is considered more pleasing in a photograph than symmetric (formal) balance. In other words, placing the main subject off-center and balancing the "weight" with other objects (smaller or lower impact) will be more effective than placing the subject in the center.


    A "frame" in a photograph is something in the foreground that leads you into the picture or gives you a sense of where the viewer is. For example, a branch and some leaves framing a shot of rolling hills and a valley, or the edge of an imposing rock face leading into a shot of a canyon. Framing can usually improve a picture. The "frame" doesn’t need to be sharply focused. In fact if it is too sharply detailed, it could be a distraction.


    You can often change a picture dramatically by moving the camera up or down or, stepping to one side. One of the best ways to come up with a prize-winning photograph is to find an "unusual" point of view.

    Direction of movement

    When the subject is capable of movement, such as an animal or person, it is best to leave space in front of the subject so it appears to be moving into, rather than out of, the photograph.

    Linear elements such as roads, waterways, and fences placed diagonally are generally perceived as more dynamic than horizontals.

    Rule of Thirds

    Last, but not least, is something called the "rule of thirds." This is a principle taught in graphic design and photography and is based on the theory that the eye goes naturally to a point about two-thirds up the page. Also, by visually dividing the image into thirds (either vertically or horizontally) you achieve the informal or asymmetric balance mentioned above.

    Although there are many ways a photograph can be composed effectively by basing it on the use of "thirds," the most common example is the placement of the horizon line in landscape photography.

    If the area of interest is land or water, the horizon line will usually be two-thirds up from the bottom. On the other hand, if the sky is the area of emphasis, the horizon line may be one-third up from the bottom, leaving the sky to occupy the top two-thirds.

    Remember that these are only guidelines, not hard and fast "rules." While a novice can achieve quality output quickly with these guidelines, experienced photographers who know the rules often find very creative ways to break them, with excellent results.

    Circles of confusion - Circles of confusion are overlapping circular patches of light representing each patch of light on the subject. These circles of confusion represent unsharp images, but the human eye seen as acceptably sharp.)

    Depth of field - Depth of field is everything which appears crisp and clear on the negative other than the point of focus.

    Preparing Photos for photography and news photography:
    Darkroom Process

    Darkroom is a room for processing photography materials. It must completely seal out light from outside the room. In the early days of the medium, many photographers traveled with portable darkrooms, which were housed in horse-drawn wagons or carried by servants. Today many people have a home darkroom built in their basement, laundry room, or closet.

    Darkroom is divided into a dry side and a wet side. The dry side is used for loading, enlarging, and preparation; the wet side contains a sink with temperature-controlled running water, and is used for the chemical processing of films and prints. Because many processing chemicals are toxic, certain precautions are necessary: the darkroom should have an exhaust fan to expel fumes and dust, and the photographer should always wear latex gloves when handling wet materials and a dust mask when mixing powdered chemicals with water.

    During the process of exposing and developing black-and-white printing paper, a special orange-colored light bulb called a safelight can provide some illumination. But during the processing of black-and-white films, color films, and color printing papers, the darkroom must be totally dark, because these materials are panchromatic—that is, they are sensitive to all types of light.

    In the home darkroom, film is customarily developed in a lighttight tank, which holds metal reels onto which the exposed film has been wound. Photographers make prints with an enlarger, an upright device that functions much like a camera except that it contains its own light source. The enlarger light shines through the negative; the enlarger lens focuses this light, and a large image of the negative projects onto the printing paper, which sits on a flat easel at the base of the enlarger.

    Developing the Film

    Developing Film Developing photographic film requires a series of chemical baths that cause the latent image on the exposed film to become visible as a negative. The process begins with the developer (1), which causes metallic silver to form where the film has been exposed to light, in densities that depend on the amount of exposure. To stop the action of the developer, film goes into a stop bath (2). After a rinse in water, the film goes into a fixer (3) to removes any silver salts not converted to metallic silver. After a short rinse, the film is submerged in fixer remover (4) to clear any remaining fixer from the film. The final bath (5) is a thorough rinse in water. The developed negative is then allowed to dry.

    Photographers develop film by treating it with an alkaline chemical solution called a developer. This solution reactivates the process begun by the action of light when the film was exposed. It encourages large grains of silver to form around the minute particles of metal that already make up the latent (not yet visible) image. As large particles of silver begin to form, a visible image develops on the film.

    As large particles of silver begin to form, a visible image develops on the film. The density of silver deposited in each area depends on the amount of light the area received during exposure. In order to arrest the action of the developer, photographers transfer the film to a solution called the stop bath, which chemically neutralizes the developer. After rinsing the film, they apply another chemical solution to the negative image to fix it—that is, to remove residual silver halide crystals unexposed to light. The solution used for this process is commonly referred to as hypo, or fixer.

    After a short rinse, a fixer remover, or hypo-clearing agent, is applied to clear any remaining fixer from the film. The film must then be thoroughly washed in water, as residual fixer tends to destroy negatives over time. Finally, bathing the processed film in a washing aid promotes uniform drying and prevents formation of water spots or streaks.

    Printing the Photos

    Printing Photographs Producing a photographic print from a developed negative also requires a series of chemical baths. The process begins by projecting light from an enlarger through the negative and onto a piece of photographic paper (paper treated with a light-sensitive coating). A developer bath (1) makes the positive image visible on the paper; a stop bath (2) stops the action of the developer so the print won't continue to darken; and a fixer bath (3) and a thorough rinse in water (4) remove any remaining reactive chemicals. The finished print then dries

    Photographers produce prints by either of two methods: contact or projection. The contact method works for making prints of exactly the same size as the negative. Using this method, they place the emulsion side of the negative in contact with the printing material and expose the two together to a source of light. Photographers with 35-millimeter cameras commonly use this method to print what is called a contact sheet, which shows all the exposures from a single roll of film in small size.

    For projection printing, photographers first place the negative in the enlarger and place a piece of sensitized printing material on the flat easel at its base. Switching on the enlarger light source projects an enlarged image of the negative onto the paper. An aperture on the enlarging lens controls the exposure, along with a timer connected to the enlarger light. The exposure commonly lasts from ten seconds to a minute. By blocking part of the light source with hands or small tools, the photographer can reduce or increase the amount of light falling on selected portions of the image, thus lightening or darkening those areas in the final print. This technique is known as dodging when used to lighten an area and as burning when making it darker.

    For either printing process, prints are made on sheets of paper or plastic that has been coated with a light-sensitive emulsion. This coating is similar to that used for film but is much less sensitive to light. After exposing the print, the photographer can then develop and fix the positive image by a process very similar to that used for developing film. To process black-and-white prints, the paper is usually placed in a series of open trays; for color prints, a drum or automatic roller processor is preferred.