Wednesday, October 22, 2008

The New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO)


The New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO) is a term that was coined in a debate over media representations of the developing world in UNESCO in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The term was widely used by the MacBride Commission, a UNESCO panel chaired by Nobel Prize winner Seán MacBride, which was charged with creation of a set of recommendations to make global media representation more equitable. The MacBride Commission produced a report titled "Many Voices, One World", which outlined the main philosophical points of the New World Information Communication Order.

Rights relating to communication have been central to the concept of universal human rights emerging in the mid-20th century, and its consolidation in the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The idea of a “right to communicate”was at the centre of an international diplomatic row that lasted several years the debate over what became known as a New World Information and Communication Order - NWICO.

As the only UN body equipped to debate in a coherent manner the range of issues raised, the battle would primarily be staged at UNESCO, where it would stay for a decade. From 1973, the NAM was developing a much more sophisticated plan for a New World Information Order. At the 1976 UNESCO General Assembly, the wide gulf between NAM and western countries (USA, UK and others) became apparent. A showdown was avoided only by the creation of the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems or the MacBride Commission. It was set up in 1977 by then director of UNESCO Ahmadou-Mahtar M’Bow, under suggestion by the USA delegation. It was agreed that the commission would be chaired by Seán MacBride from Ireland and representatives from 15 other countries, invited due to their roles in national and international communication activities and picked among media activists, journalists, scholars, and media executives.

The commission presented a preliminary report in October 1978 at the 20th General Conference of UNESCO in Paris. The final report was delivered to M’Bow in April 1980 and was approved by consensus in the 21st General Conference of UNESCO in Belgrade. The commission dissolved after presenting the report.

Many Voices One World, also known as the MacBride report, was a 1980 UNESCO publication written by the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems. Its aim was to analyze communication problems in modern societies, particularly relating to mass media and news, and to suggest a new communication order to solve these problems to further peace and human development.

Among the problems the report identified were concentration of the media, commercialization of the media, and unequal access to information and communication. The commission called for democratization of communication and strengthening of national media to avoid dependence on external sources, among others. While the report had strong international support, it was condemned by the United States and the United Kingdom as an attack on the freedom of the press.

The MacBride Commission’s report bore the hallmarks of a fractious political process, fudging many issues and containing numerous caveats. But it was comprehensive (with a notable weakness in relation to gender) and wide-ranging, and came with concrete recommendations, including:

“Communication needs in a democratic society should be met by the extension of specific rights such as the right to be informed, the right to inform, the right to privacy, the right to participate in public communication - all elements of a new concept, the right to communicate. In developing what might be called a new era of social rights, we suggest all the implications of the right to communicate be further explored.”

For the first time, the NWICO had a general framework, a detailed justification, a set of proposals, and a unifying concept - the “right to communicate”.
Eventually the Commission’s findings were endorsed-a defining moment for NWICO, but one which was short-lived. The veneer of agreement was thin; instead of bringing the sides together, the process merely exposed the gulf between them and entrenched the positions, especially of West governments mired within Cold War geo-politics.

NWICO, spearheaded by the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) of UN countries focused on:
The “free flow” doctrine of information flow, which was reinforcing the dominance of western media and news content;

The growing concentration of the media and communication industry translating into more foreign ownership of media in smaller and poorer countries;
How the growing importance of western-controlled technologies to media production and dissemination was making it difficult for others to keep up.

The USA led a “counter-offensive” on UNESCO, supported strongly by the private media industry and lobbies. The main charge was that less developed countries were attempting to impose government control of media, and to suppress freedom of the press - despite the fact that press freedom was strongly endorsed at every turn by NWICO. The US (in 1984) and UK (in 1985) eventually withdrew from UNESCO, partly due to NWICO.

While the newly politicised “information society” was becoming ascendant, NWICO in its original form had declined. It did manage to stay on the UNESCO agenda, though with little action, until 1987. With the “New Communication Strategy” under new UNESCO Director-General Federico Mayor in 1989, it basically died out. Yet the arguments that animated the NWICO movement continued, and even in some respects became sharper. The arguments continued to surface in new calls-outside of governments this time - for “communication rights”.

For many, the main lesson from NWICO was that the way forward would have to be through the democratization of media and communication, rather than through state - or industry - led efforts to create new global orders. In practice, a major shift was needed towards civil society, which had so far been largely excluded. Those that had been involved - mainly journalists’ organizations and some academics -continued debating in the form of the MacBride Round Table, which met annually from 1989 to 1999, and brought new civil society actors into the discussion.

By the 1990s, various coalitions were formed and initiatives taken to address the larger picture underlying many of these concerns, among them the People’s Communication Charter and the Platform for Democratization of Communication. Many broad-based conferences and meetings were held to pull the threads together and exchange understanding internationally.

CLICK for full text of MacBride report


Under British Rule

- Bengal Gazette (English weekly) published by James Augustus Hicky in 1780 Jan 29th from Calcutta. It was the first news paper in South Asian sub- continent

- Bengal Gazette alias ‘Hicky Gazette’, ‘Calcutta General Advertiser’

- Declaration ‘a weekly political and commercial paper open to all but influenced by none’

- Hicky had his own column, many persons wrote by pen names.

- Bengal Gazette could not survive more than two years due to sharp confrontation with Governer General Warren Hastings and Chief Justice Elijah Impey.

- Indian Gazette as a rival to Bengal Gazette, published in the same year (1780) by Peter Read, a salt agent (backing by Hastings).

- After Bengal Gazette, other publications from India were- Madras Courier weekly (1785), Bombay Herald weekly (1789) merged into Bombay Gazette in 1791, Hurukaru weekly (1793), Calcutta Chronicle (1818), Bengal Journal, Indian world, Bengal Harkarer etc.

- In the early period newspapers in India were run by Britishers.


A renowned man of the pen – born in Bombay – his father, a British citizen was a government officer in India – Rudyard joined Civil and Military Gazette (Lahore) in 1872 at the age of 17- worked for five years in Gazette- then moved to the Pioneer- his writings specially monologue and fictions were very impressive- ‘writing and every thing associated with, is a glorious fun’, ‘I love both the fun and riot of writing’- after suffering from malaria he was compelled to left India and went to England in1890- he served about 7 years in India as a journalist- he is still remembered as a creative journalist in the history of Indian journalism- reflections of his Indian experience can be seen in his several writings.

Indian’s involvement in publication

- Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the pioneer Indian journalist and social reformer

- By his inspiration Gangadhar Bhattacharjee published Bengal Gazette (1816),
the first Indian owned English daily newspaper, but could not survive long

- Raja’s own publications- Sambad Kaumudi (Bengali 1821), Mirut ul Akhbar (Persian 1822) and Brahminical Magazine (English 1822)

- Press Regulation –1823 imposed by British govt. in India to control newspapers.

- The regulation was used as a tool to deport James Silk Buckingham, Editor of Calcutta Chronicle.

- Raja presented a petition to Supreme Court to protest the regulation in favour of J.S. Buckingham.

- It was his bold step for the preservation of press freedom, however he defeated the case.

- Anti reformists Hindu fundamentalists published Samachar Chandrika weekly to challenge Raja’s social reforms.

- Raja passed away in 1833

- 1857 Mutiny (the first war of Indian independence) was a turning point to Indian journalism.

- In the issue of mutiny, British owned press and Indian owned press blamed each other in the lowest level.

- British owned press acted like blood mongers of Indians.

- This event worked as a fuel to Indian owned press against the British rule in India.

- Pioneers Indian journalists on those days- Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Gangadhar Bhattacharjee, Bhawani Charan Bannerjee, Dwarkanath Tagore, Girish Chandra Ghose, Harischandra Mukharjee, Ishworchandra Vidyasagar, Kristo Pal, Manmohan Ghose, Keshub Chander Sen etc.

- Other major publications by Indians- The Reformer, Enquirer, Gyan Auneshun, Bengal Herald, Bang Doot, Hindu Patriot, Indian Mirror, Sulab Samachar, etc.

After Mutiny

- Standard, The Bombay Times and Telegraph merged into Times of India in 1861, Robert Knight was the owner , he was also owner of Statesman daily (1875) from Calcutta, Indian Economist monthly and Agriculture Gazette of India, his editorials and writings were balanced and impressive.

- Other major publications- Indu Prakash weekly, Gyan Prakash, Lokhitavadi (all 1861), Amrit Bazar Patrika (1868 Cacutta), Pioneer (1872 Allahbad), The Hindu (1878 Chennai) , Keshari (marathi) and The Maratha (English) (both in1878 from Pune by veteran freedom fighter Balgangadhar Tilak)

- Pioneer Indian Journalists- Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahadev Govinda Ranade, Dadabhoi Naoroji, Gopal Rao Hari Deshmukh, Vishu Shastri Pandit, Karsondas Mulji, Bal Sashtri Jambhekar etc.

- British govt. enacted Vernacular Press Act-1878 to suppress Indian language newspapers

- Indian National Congress (INC) founded in 1885.

- It was led by many nationalists like Surendranath Banerjee, Balgangadhar Tilak, Dadabhoi Naoroji, Motilal Gosh, Bipin Chandra Pal, G. Subramania Aiyer, etc., who were active journalists too.

- After establishment of INC, Indian press became an important part of struggle for independence.

Leading Newspapers After Establishment of INC

-1900- Bangalee English Daily (ed)- Surendranath Banarjee

-1901- New India English Weekly (ew)- Bipinchandra Pal

- 1901- Bande Mataram – Bengalee weekly- Bipinchandra Pal

- 1906- Yugantar – Bengali daily- Barendra kumar Ghose

- 1909- Leader- ed- Madan Mohan Malviya

- 1913- New India –ed- Annie Besant

- 1913- Bombay Chronicle –ed- Phiroj Shah Mehata

- 1918 –Justice- ed- Dr.T.M.Nair (published by non- Brahmin movement in Madras)

- 1918 – Searchlight- English biweekly- Shachindranath Sinha

-1919- The Independent -ed– Pandit Motilal Neharu

- 1919- Young India – ed- Mahatma Gandhi

- 1920 – Nav Jeevan – Gujarati weeky- Mahatma Gandhi

- 1922- Swarajya- ed- T.Prakasham

- 1923- Forward- ed- Chittaranjan Das

- 1923- The Hindustan Times –ed- K.M. Panikar (first daily in Delhi)

- 1929- Liberty-ed- Subhas Chandra Bose

-1932- Harijan- Gujarati weekly- Mahatma Gandhi

- 1938- National Herald- Jawaharlal Neharu

- Viceroy Lord Curzon Vs. Indian press

- In 1907 series of arrests and prosecutions against the journalists and press

- India Press Act –1910 asked for heavy security deposits

- 963 publications and press were prosecuted under the act

- 173 new printing press and 129 newspapers were killed at their birth by the weapon of security deposits

- British govt. collected about 5 lakhs Indian Rs. in the first year of the act enforcement

- During the First world war (1914-1918) Indian press were divided.

- The act was forcely executed against the press who were not in support of British side in the world war.

- In 1919 Jaliawala Bagh massacre was a big disaster to the Indian press.

- Even the Anglo- Indian press were not escaped.

The Golden Era of Indian Mission Journalism (1920 – 1947)

- Declaration of non-cooperation movement against British rule in India.

- Press marched shoulder to shoulder with satyagrahis.

- Mahatma Gandhi lauded for freedom of expression, ideas and people’s sentiments

- Gandhi would not accept adv., he believed newspapers should survive on the revenue from subscribers

- He would not accept any restrictions on the paper, he rather close it down

- His writings were widely circulated and reproduced in the newspapers all over the country

- A big challenge to non-Gandhian newspapers.

- Gandhi declared ‘Salt Satyagraha’ in 1930

- The nationalist press played a memorable role, which perhaps is unique in the history of any freedom movement.

- Press ordinance issued in 1930 to suppress Indian press through heavy security deposits.

- When second world war broke out , British rulers became more suppressive to the Indian press

- In 1940 UP government directed the press to submit the headlines of the news to the secretary of the information department for his pre- approval

- In response to this, National Herald (newspaper run by Jawaharlal Neharu) published the news without headlines

- Second world war and freedom fight gave more fuel to Indian press

- Britishers charged them as ‘ pro-Hitler’

- All India Newspaper Editors Conference held in 1940 at Delhi voiced against the suppressive attitude of the British govt.

- Fresh suppression and struggle started from 1942 when Quit India Movement initiated

- Many press, publications and journalists including Neharu suspended and arrested in1942

- It continued until the declaration of independence in1947 August

- K. Rama Rao, Editor, Swarajya “ It was more than a vocation, it was a mission and the newspaper was a noble enterprise working for patriotic purpose”.

1947 Onwards

- India received independence from British rule on 1947 August 15th

- The press celebrated the independence, because it was their victory too.

- At the beginning of independence the relation between the national govt. and press was good, but a year after situation was changed

- P. M. Neharu, Sardar Ballav Bhai Patel, etc. were not happy with the press.

- Press Commission- 1952, report- 1954

- Recommendations – Press Council, press registrar, minimum basic salary for working journalists, strengthen the role of the editors

- The working journalist act-1955

- The newspaper (price and page) act- 1956

- Press Council established – 1965

- P.M. Mrs. Indira Gandhi declared state of emergency on 1975 June

- It was a shocking blow to the freedom of press

- Ignored the press freedom guaranteed by article 19 (1) in the constitution

- Heavy censorship during the emergency period under Defence Rule “ in order to maintain public order…”

- 1975 Dec 8th ordinance banned the publication of all ‘ objectionable matter’, no permission to report parliament, close down Press Council , blaming it was failed to curb provocative writings

- During 19 months of emergency 253 journalists detained and 7 foreign correspondence expelled

- When Janata Dal came into power, all the restrictions over press were removed

- After emergency Indian press became more professional along with high tech., simultaneous publications increased, tremendous change in the contents, more supplements, booming of specialized magazines

- Press Council re- established under new act- 28 member, chaired by retired judge of high court

According to UNESCO

Top circulation

The Times of India – approx. 18 lakh copies / day

The Indian Express – approx. 15 lakh copies / day

Total no. of all publications – approx. 40 thousand
Out of them dailies- 4,453 (including 320 English dailies)
NOTE : Circulation information may differ in changing situation.

The Times of India – 1861
Amrit Bazar Patrika – 1868
Pioneer - 1872
The Statesman - 1875
The Hindu - 1878


- Amateur Radio Club started local broadcasting in 1924 at Madras

- Indian Broadcasting co.(private) 1927- Bombay and Calcutta

- Indian State Broadcasting Service – 1930

- Name changed as All India Radio (AIR) / Aakashbani

- Before independence AIR stations in Hyderabad, Baroda, Mysore, Trivandrum, Aurangabad, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lukhnow, Pesawar and Dhaka

- During second World War radio became more popular in India

- After independence AIR was a major tool to dissiminate govt. information

- AIR as an ‘ electronic ambassador’ in abroad

- Now AIR have more than 200 stations covering 90% of the land and 97% of the population

- News in 24 languages including Hindi, English and many other languages of India

- From 1997 broadcasting is beeing regulated by an autonomous corporation under Prasar Bharati Act

- 12 radio sets / 100 people


- Door Darshan (DD) started as an experiment in 1959 from New Delhi, for educational purpose

- Regular broadcasting started from 1965 from New Delhi

- Indian Space Research Organization borrowed a satellite from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) in 1975

- Community TV sets in 2,400 villages

- Colour broadcasting from 1982 on the eve of Asian Games held in New Delhi

- 40 different broadcasting centers

- covers 70% of land and 87% 0f population

- programs in about a dozen languages

- 6.5 tv sets / 100 people

- after 1995 many private channels

- all TV broadcasting regulated by Prasar Bharati Act


- Press Trust of India (PTI) 1947

- Hindustan Samachar 1948

- United News of India (UNI)- 1961

- Samachar Bharati –1965

Hindustan Samachar and Samachar Bharati produce news in various Indian languages while PTI and UNI in English

- Press Information Bureau (PBI), under Ministry of Information, provides government news and information in English, Hindi, Urdu and 13 regional languages.

Monday, October 20, 2008

History of Mass Communication in PAKISTAN

Pre- Independence

- Turning point for Indian muslims was establishment of All India Muslim League in 1906, for the promotion of muslim interest

- League inspired muslims for paper publications

- By 1925 muslim press comprised 220 various publications in Urdu, English, Bengali etc.

- In 1930 muslims began their struggle for a separate state

- Then they faced the hostility with both Hindu owned press and Anglo- Indian press .

- Mohammad Ali Jinnah helped to established Dawn English weekly in 1930 from Delhi, (Dawn became daily in 1942)

- Influencial muslim papers – Azad, Jung, Dawn,The Star of India, Morning News, Manshoor, Anjam, Nawa-e-Waqt, Eastern Times, Weekly Observer, Sindha Times, New Life, Khaiber Mail, Zamindar etc.

- Dawn shifted to Karachi from Delhi after its Delhi office attacked and burnt by anti separation groups in 1947 August .

- Jung and Anjam also shifted Karachi from Delhi

Post Independence (1947- 1958)

- Press was weak in Pakistani territory

- Only Lahore, Karachi and Dhaka were ahead

- After 1949 war between India and Pakistan on Kashmir issue, press freedom has been curtailed

- Pak.govt. believed completely free press could threaten the country’s security

- Public safety act-1949 and Security of Pakistan act-1952 were sufficient to supress the press freedom

- During the first seven years of independence Pak. Govt. banned 33 newspapers in Punjab alone

- Between 1947 to 1958 no. of periodicals- 1106, dailies- 103, weeklies and biweeklies- 379

- Circulation of dailies increased from 1, 25,000 (in1948) to more than 7 lakh (in 1958)

The Authoritarian Period (1958 – 1988)

- Field Marshal Ayub Khan came into power in 1958

- He imposed system of ‘press advice’, a power to dictate press what to publish and what not

- In 1960 decline of dailies from 103 to 74, weeklies and biweeklies from 379 to 260

- In 1959 govt. took over Lahore Progressive Paper ltd., the publisher of leading English daily Pakistan Times and leading Urdu daily Imroze

- In 1961 govt. took over APP

- In 1963 Ayub Khan imposed PPO (press and publication ordinance), ‘the blackest of the black laws’

- It gave obsolute power to govt. to supress the press and to prohibit reporting on a wide range of subjects

- Second Indo-Pak war in1965 led to declared Marshal Law and Defence of Pakistan, lasted for 20 yrs.

- After Ayub Khan, his successors Yahya Khan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Zia-ul- Haq followed the same supressive attitude towards the press.

- Situation changed after sudden death of Zia ul Haq

- Care taker govt. lifted PPO and introduced RPPPO ( registration of printing press and publication ordinance) , comparatively liberal than PPO`

- 1n 1990 govt.of Benazir Bhutto ended govt. monopoly over import and distribution of newsprint paper

- Art.19 of the constitution of Pakistan provides the freedom of press, subject to a number of restrictions

- Should not against the glory of Islam, integrity, security or defense of Pakistan, friendly relation with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, related to contempt of court, defamation.

- Official secret act, Security of Pakistan act., Maintenance of public order act etc. are sufficient to punish any news organization or journalist

- In 1995 a Lahore based free lance journalist was arrested and charged for his reporting on child labour in Pakistani carpet industries.

- In 1995 June, under Maintenance of public order ordinance, license of 122 newspapers were cancelled, but nationwide strike of journalists forced the govt. to withdraw the decision

- In 1998 editor and several journalists of Urdu daily Pakistan were arrested for publishing negative aspects of Prophet Mohammad

- RPPPO is an ordinance yet

- According to RPPPO not more than 25% foreign ownership in print media, and pre- approval by the govt. is compulsory

- News paper employees (condition of service) act –1973

Out of more than 300 dailies , 6 major dailies who have more than 1 lakh circulation-
(according to UNESCO Report)

- Jung- 8,50,000
- Nawa-e- Waqt- 5 lakh
- Pakistan-2, 80,000
- Khabarain- 2,32,000
- The News – 1,20,000
- Dawn - 1,10,000

( Circulation report may changed)
- Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad are major cities for press.

- Govt. do not owned newspapers


- After the partition, India and Pakistan divided the assests of All India Radio.

- Pakistan inherited AIR stations in Lahore, Pesawar and Dhaka

- In 1949 August, Radio Pakistan formally launched in Karachi

- Now stations in 22 places

- 100% coverage

- Broadcasting in 20 languages

- 48% entertainment, 13% religious, 11 % news and current affairs,28% socio-eco

- National news bulletin 18 times / day in Urdu and English

- Govt. controls over Radio Pakistan through Pakistan Broadcasting Corp. (1973)

- After 1995 private FM increased in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad, allegation to Benazir Bhutto for giving license only to her close persons.


- PTV launched in1964 November from Lahore

- Agrrement with Nippon Electric corp.

- Colour broadcast from 1976 Dec.

- 6 centers- Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad (2), Pesawar and Quetta

- High power broadcasting stations in 32 places

- PTV-2 from 1992

- PTV World from 1998

- PTV Middle East Channel from 1999

- PTV coverage 86% population and 38% territory

- Entertainment – 56%, News and Current aff. 16%, educational 10%, religious 8%, others 10%

- PTV broadcastes 54 % program in Urdu

- Shalimar tv network (STN)- 1989

- Approved by Benzir govt.

- 54% govt. share

- Shaheen Pay tv – 1996

- Approved by Benazir’s second govt.
- Private tv with foreign investment

- Run by Shaheen Foundation, a welfare organisation of retired air force officers

- Private tv are not permitted to produce news.

- They just replay news from PTV, BBC and CNN

- All the tv channels are regulated by Pakistan Broadcasting Act-1973


- Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) – 1948
( a part of Ministry of Information and Media Development)

- Pakistan Press International (PPI) – Private

- Many other small news organizations funded by political parties and groups.

Communication and Journalism Class XII

Unit I

News Editing:

Quality of a sub editor, steps in copy reading tips on headline writing, planning a house journal/school magazing, elements of make up, tips to make up editors, Editor's job, editorial, news designer comments, News editing for print and electronic media.

Unit II

Photo Journalism:

Introduction of Photo journalism.
Handling a camera.
Use of pictures, tips for better pictures, preparing photos for photography and news photography.

Unit III

Specialized Reporting

Truth, accuracy and objectivity in reporting about events and issues, interviews and press conferences, specialized reporting – investigative, sports, crime, development and court reporting.

Unit IV

Broadcast Journalism:

The era of broadcasting.
Natures of radio and TV journalism.
Reporting on broadcast media, Editing news copy for radio and television.
News bulletin, preparing materials to be broadcasted, Introduction to online journalism.

Unit V

Press and Laws

Standards and ethics in journalism, Press Freedom and responsibility, Codes of Conduct, Press laws and regulations in Nepal, law on libel and obscenities.

Unit VI


Details of the practical works:

1. Reporting assignment on social issues. Each student should submit five items including completion of reporting assignments.
2. Production of 2 news stories each on environment, court, human rights and minorities.
3. Presentation of magazine file based on classroom assignments: News clipping of human-interest stories in the lab copy from the national newspapers – 5 items
And three news items of classroom assignment must be pasted in the lab copy.
4. Production of a wall newspaper.

Communication and Journalism Class XI

Unit I

Introduction of mass communication:

1. Definition of mass communication, elements of communication, mass media and communication
2. Communication information: key feature, information process, information life cycle
3. Mass Communication, scope and functions
4. Types of media: Print, electronic and film
5. Brief historical development of world press with emphasis on history of mass media in Nepal.

Unit II

The Concept of News:

1. Introduction to reporting
2. Source of News
3. Writing reports and news stories
4. Quality of a reporter

Unit III

News Reporting

1. Introduction to news reporting
2. News and its basic ingredients
3. Headlines
4. The news structure
5. The art of Sub-editing
6. Rewriting of news
7. Page making and lay –out

Unit IV

Freedom of Press and Human Rights:

1. Introduction to press theory
2. Definition of Freedom of Press
3. General concept of Human Rights
4. Concepts of Fundamental Rights, UN provision and Provision of the Constitution of Nepal.

Unit V


1. Knowledge of Computer and its use in mass media: preparation of profile of places and personalities.
2. Reporting assignment on social issues: at least five news-beats.
3. Production of a news story: at least one each from accident crime and events using computer.

Tuesday, October 14, 2008

Concepts and Theories Of Film


Earlier photographic optics and chemistry prohibited the recording of moving subjects except for a few experiments under special circumstances. Anything that moves produces a blur on the photographic plate or paper, and this was seen as limiting the medium's inherent capacity for Absolute Realism. The camera's inability to record motion perceived as a problem similar to its inability to record color was addressed almost immediately after the birth of the medium and solved step by step. The solution had widespread consequences: it made vulnerable the assumptions about the veracity of the medium; it produced a new graphic system to represent movement and it lead to be invention of Motion Pictures.

In the beginning all of motion pictures are screened silent until the global diffusion of sound recording technology in the period of 1927-32. This changed the structure of film industry and aesthetic dynamics of film industry. After the film became popular medium of entertainment. Film became influential and popular among mass so, some rulers as Hitlor, Stalin used film as propaganda tool during their rule.


Films are produced by recording images from the world with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or special effects. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating — or indoctrinating — citizens. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue.

Traditional films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement.

The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) had historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture, picture show, photo-play, flick, and most commonly, movie. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the cinema, and the movies.

Famous Indian Film maker Satyajit Roy identified film as a mirror of society. He opines that film should capture the social reality not only superficial. Another expert George Paul have own definition and meaning about film, he opine that film neither teach society nor life but only gives amusement. Using 'Film Liberty' it makes impossible as possible.

Renown Nepalese Film maker Nabin Subba analyze film interrelated with Culture, Market, Science and Art. He opines these all are basic component which makes film a film.

Film and Society

Capacity of capturing movement made revolution in human society. It's not only the tool amusement and propaganda but it captures history and transfers culture in generation to generation. All communicative acts and means have significance in human society. Film is not differ than others. In 1920s when film became a part of lifestyle in America, its massive effects were seen on children. Lumieres brothers invented film in 1895 and first show was held in 1903. Since then there is a debate about the relationship between film and society. Some experts opine film influence the people and others film is just a mirror of society, they are guided by normative values of society. There is divergent perspective in theorizing film.

Theories of Film

The word Theory has its etymological root in the Greek word Theoria. In ancient Greece, Theoria was a term used to refer to a group of envoys who represented each city states on the occasion of religious festivals or games. Theory is proposed explanation for set of coordinated occurrences and relationships of matters or phenomenon. In other words, a theory is systematic understanding. In this sense, theories provide "explanations of how or why things happen the way they do." Same applies in the sector of Moving Pictures. Film theories describe how and why films are. As other sector, there are divergent perspectives on film and film theory. Some experts opine film can portray the reality of society other emphasize on positive message. Some as George Paul describes film as a tool of entertainment. Giving emphasis to Film Liberty Paul opine that film nether teaches neither society nor life, it only provides amusement; there is no logics behind its arrangement.
Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to film and video. Classical film theory provides a structural framework to address classical issues of techniques, narrativity, diegesis, cinematic codes, "the image", genre, subjectivity, and authorship. Recent analysis has given rise to psychoanalytic film theory, structuralist film theory and feminist film theory. Behavioral, Structural and Cultural patterns are taking place in film study recently.
Here we discuss some of Film Theories:

1. Socialist Realism Theory — Socialist realism is a teleological-oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of socialism and communism. Although related, it should not be confused with social realism, a type of art that realistically depicts subjects of social concern.

Socialist realism was the officially approved type of art in the Soviet Union for nearly sixty years. Communist doctrine decreed that all material goods and means of production belonged to the community as a whole. This included means of producing art, which were also seen as powerful propaganda tools. During the October Revolution of 1917, the Bolsheviks established an institution called Proletkult (the Proletarian Cultural and Enlightenment Organizations) which sought to put all arts into the service of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Socialist realism became state policy in 1932 when Soviet leader Joseph Stalin promulgated the decree "On the Reconstruction of Literary and Art Organizations".

The Soviet Union exported socialist realism to virtually all of the other Communist countries, although the degree to which it was enforced there varied somewhat from country to country. It became the predominant art form across the Communist world for almost fifty years. The doctrine of socialist realism in other Soviet-controlled new People's Republics was legally enforced from 1949 to 1956. Today, arguably the only countries still focused on these aesthetic principles are North Korea, Laos, and to some extent Vietnam. The People's Republic of China occasionally reverts to socialist realism for specific purposes, such as idealised propaganda posters to promote the Chinese space program. Socialist realism had little mainstream impact in the non-Communist world, where it was widely seen as a totalitarian means of imposing state control on artists.

Socialist realism had its roots in neoclassicism and the traditions of realism in Russian literature of the 19th century that described the life of simple people. It was exemplified by the aesthetic philosophy of Maxim Gorki. The work of the Peredvizhniki ("Wanderers," a Russian realist movement of the late 19th / early 20th centuries), Jacques-Louis David and Ilya Yefimovich Repin were notable influences.
Socialist realism held that successful art depicts and glorifies the proletariat's struggle toward socialist progress. The Statute of the Union of Soviet Writers in 1934 stated that socialist realism. It demands of the artist the truthful, historically concrete representation of reality in its revolutionary development. Moreover, the truthfulness and historical concreteness of the artistic representation of reality must be linked with the task of ideological transformation and education of workers in the spirit of socialism.

Its purpose was to elevate the common worker, whether factory or agricultural, by presenting his life, work, and recreation as admirable. In other words, its goal was to educate the people in the goals and meaning of Communism. The ultimate aim was to create what Lenin called "an entirely new type of human being": New Soviet Man. Stalin described the practitioners of socialist realism as "engineers of souls". The political doctrine behind socialist realism also underlay the pervasive censorship of Communist societies many then joined Western observers in denouncing socialist realism as mere propaganda. Maxim Gorky's novel Mother and films based on it is usually considered as socialist realism.

2. Structuralist Theory —
The structuralist film theory emphasizes how films convey meaning through the use of codes and conventions not dissimilar to the way languages are used to construct meaning in communication. An example of this is understanding how the simple combination of shots can create an additional idea: the blank expression on a person's face, a piece of an appetising cherry-topped chocolate fudge cake, and then back to the person's face. While nothing in this sequence literally expresses hunger—or desire—the juxtaposition of the images convey that meaning to the audience. Unraveling this additional meaning can become quite complex. Lighting, angle, shot duration, juxtaposition, cultural context, and a wide array of other elements can actively reinforce or undermine a sequence's meaning.

3. Apparatus Theory — Apparatus theory derived in part from Marxist film theory, semiotics, and psychoanalysis, was a dominant theory within cinema studies during the 1970s. It maintains that cinema is by nature ideological because its mechanics of representation are ideological. Its mechanics of representation include the camera and editing. The central position of the spectator within the perspective of the composition is also ideological. Apparatus theory also argues that cinema maintains the dominant ideology of the culture within the viewer. Ideology is not imposed on cinema, but is part of its nature. Apparatus theory follows an institutional model of spectatorship.

4. Auteur Theory —
Auteur theory holds that a director's films reflect that director's personal creative vision, as if he or she were the primary "Auteur" (the French word for "author"). In some cases, film producers are considered to have a similar "Auteur" role for films that they have produced. In law the Auteur is the creator of a film as a work of art, and is the original copyright holder. Under European Union law the film director shall always be considered the author or one of the authors of a film. The Auteur theory was used by the directors of the nouvelle vague (new wave) movement of French cinema in the 1960s (many of whom were also critics at the Cahiers du cinéma) as justification for their intensely personal and idiosyncratic films. One of the ironies of the Auteur theory is that, at the very moment Truffaut was writing, the break-up of the Hollywood studio system during the 1950s was ushering in a period of uncertainty and conservatism in American cinema, with the result that fewer of the sort of films Truffaut admired were actually being made.

5 Feminist film Theory —
Feminist film theory is theoretical film criticism derived from feminist politics and feminist theory. Feminists have many approaches to cinema analysis, regarding the film elements analyzed and their theoretical underpinnings. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and the development of women's studies within the academy. Feminist scholars began applying the new theories arising from these movements to analyzing film. Initial attempts in the United States in the early 1970’s were generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of women characters in particular film narratives or genres and of stereotypes as a reflection of a society's view of women. Works such as Marjorie Rosen’s Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies, and the American Dream (1973) and Molly Haskell’s From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in Movies (1974) analyzed how the women portrayed in film related to the broader historical context, the stereotypes depicted, the extent to which the women were shown as active or passive, and the amount of screen time given to women.

6 Formalist Theory —
Formalist film theory is a theory of film study that is focused on the formal, or technical, elements of a film: i.e., the lighting, scoring, sound and set design, use of color, shot composition, and editing. It is a major theory of film study today. Formalism, at its most general, considers the synthesis (or lack of synthesis) of the multiple elements of film production, and the effects, emotional and intellectual, of that synthesis and of the individual elements. For example, let's take the single element of editing. A formalist might study how standard Hollywood "continuity editing" creates a more comforting effect and non-continuity or jump-cut editing might become more disconcerting or volatile.

7. Marxist Theory — Marxist film theory is one of the oldest forms of film theory. Sergei Eisenstein and many other Soviet filmmakers in the 1920s expressed ideas of Marxism through film. In fact, the Hegelian dialectic was considered best displayed in film editing through the Kuleshov Experiment and the development of montage. While this structuralist approach to Marxism and filmmaking was used, the more vociferous complaint that the Russian filmmakers had was with the narrative structure of Hollywood filmmaking.
Eisenstein's solution was to shun narrative structure by eliminating the individual protagonist and tell stories where the action is moved by the group and the story is told through a clash of one image against the next (whether in composition, motion, or idea) so that the audience is never lulled into believing that they are watching something that has not been worked over. Eisenstein himself, however, was accused by the Soviet authorities of "formalist error," of highlighting form as a thing of beauty instead of portraying the worker nobly.

8. Psychoanalysis Theory —
the concepts of psychoanalysis have been applied to films in various ways. However, the 1970s and 1980s saw the development of theory that took concepts developed by the French psychoanalyst and writer Jacques Lacan and applied them to the experience of watching a film. The film viewer is seen as the subject of a "gaze" that is largely "constructed" by the film itself, where what is on screen becomes the object of that subject's desire.
The viewing subject may be offered particular identifications (usually with a leading male character) from which to watch. The theory stresses the subject's longing for a completeness which the film may appear to offer through identification with an image; in fact, according to Lacanian theory, identification with the image is never anything but an illusion and the subject is always split simply by virtue of coming into existence.

9. Screen Theory —
Screen theory is a Marxist film theory associated with the British journal Screen in the 1970s. The theoreticians of this approach -- Colin MacCabe, Stephen Heath and Laura Mulvey -- describe the "cinematic apparatus" as a version of Althusser's Ideological State Apparatus (ISA). According to screen theory, it is the spectacle that creates the spectator and not the other way round. The fact that the subject is created and subjected at the same time by the narrative on screen is masked by the apparent realism of the communicated content.

10. Culture theory
The '60s saw the humanities undergo considerable expansion. Film programs were established in Western countries. Many film scholars came from other fields of study, which meant that many new theoretical questions were raised. More important was the sheer proliferation of theories and epistemologies, and the shift toward a new focus in cinema studies. The question of the essence of cinema was still an undercurrent in many writings but the legitimisation of cinema studies as a scientific enterprise seemed more urgent. The domination of structuralism followed by semiotics and psychoanalysis meant that cinema studies were connected to new fields. Also the politicisation of the humanities meant the import of new theories concerned with cultural philosophy and ideology, which were essentially taken from different strands of Marxism. The questions throughout that period were, therefore, scientific and political in nature.


Books in English:

1. Filming the Gods: Religion and Indian Cinema, Dwyer, Rachel. 2006. London: Routledge
2. International Encyclopedia of communications, Vol 3, Barnouw, Erik, George Gerbner, Wilbur Scharmm, Tobia L. Worth and Larry Gross. Eds. 1989, New York and Oxford ; The Annenberg school of communication university of Pennsylvania and oxford university press
3. International Communication, Continuity and Change, Thussu, Daya Kishan, 2000. London: Arnold
4. McQuail's Mass Communicaiton Theory, Denis McQuail, 2005. New Delhi : Vistaar

Books in Nepali:
१. जक्स्टापोजिसन । राई, मोहन । २००४. काठमाण्डौं शान्ती चेमजोङ्ग
२. चलचित्रकला । शर्मा, लक्ष्मीनाथ । २०३८. काठमाण्डौं साझा प्रकाशन

Presentations in Nepali:

१. वैकल्पिक चलचित्र निर्माण सम्बन्धि अवधारणापत्र । गौचन, दिपेन्द ।, २०५८, चलचित्र विकास बोर्डद्वारा काठमाण्डौंमा आयोजित 'राष्ट्रिय चलचित्र महोत्सवमा प्रस्तुत'
२. नेपालमा चलचित्र वितरण र प्रदर्शनका समस्या तथा समाधान । पौड्याल, उद्वव । २०५७, चलचित्र विकास बोर्डद्वारा विराटनगरमा आयोजित क्षेत्रिय गोष्ठिमा प्रस्तुत
३. चलचित्र र समाज । भट्टराई, प्रदिप । २०५८. नेपाल रसिया फिल्म सोसाइटी एवं चलचित्र समिक्षक समाज नेपालद्वारा आयोजित 'चलचित्र र समाज' गोष्ठिमा प्रस्तुत