Wednesday, October 22, 2008

The New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO)


The New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO) is a term that was coined in a debate over media representations of the developing world in UNESCO in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The term was widely used by the MacBride Commission, a UNESCO panel chaired by Nobel Prize winner Seán MacBride, which was charged with creation of a set of recommendations to make global media representation more equitable. The MacBride Commission produced a report titled "Many Voices, One World", which outlined the main philosophical points of the New World Information Communication Order.

Rights relating to communication have been central to the concept of universal human rights emerging in the mid-20th century, and its consolidation in the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The idea of a “right to communicate”was at the centre of an international diplomatic row that lasted several years the debate over what became known as a New World Information and Communication Order - NWICO.

As the only UN body equipped to debate in a coherent manner the range of issues raised, the battle would primarily be staged at UNESCO, where it would stay for a decade. From 1973, the NAM was developing a much more sophisticated plan for a New World Information Order. At the 1976 UNESCO General Assembly, the wide gulf between NAM and western countries (USA, UK and others) became apparent. A showdown was avoided only by the creation of the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems or the MacBride Commission. It was set up in 1977 by then director of UNESCO Ahmadou-Mahtar M’Bow, under suggestion by the USA delegation. It was agreed that the commission would be chaired by Seán MacBride from Ireland and representatives from 15 other countries, invited due to their roles in national and international communication activities and picked among media activists, journalists, scholars, and media executives.

The commission presented a preliminary report in October 1978 at the 20th General Conference of UNESCO in Paris. The final report was delivered to M’Bow in April 1980 and was approved by consensus in the 21st General Conference of UNESCO in Belgrade. The commission dissolved after presenting the report.

Many Voices One World, also known as the MacBride report, was a 1980 UNESCO publication written by the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems. Its aim was to analyze communication problems in modern societies, particularly relating to mass media and news, and to suggest a new communication order to solve these problems to further peace and human development.

Among the problems the report identified were concentration of the media, commercialization of the media, and unequal access to information and communication. The commission called for democratization of communication and strengthening of national media to avoid dependence on external sources, among others. While the report had strong international support, it was condemned by the United States and the United Kingdom as an attack on the freedom of the press.

The MacBride Commission’s report bore the hallmarks of a fractious political process, fudging many issues and containing numerous caveats. But it was comprehensive (with a notable weakness in relation to gender) and wide-ranging, and came with concrete recommendations, including:

“Communication needs in a democratic society should be met by the extension of specific rights such as the right to be informed, the right to inform, the right to privacy, the right to participate in public communication - all elements of a new concept, the right to communicate. In developing what might be called a new era of social rights, we suggest all the implications of the right to communicate be further explored.”

For the first time, the NWICO had a general framework, a detailed justification, a set of proposals, and a unifying concept - the “right to communicate”.
Eventually the Commission’s findings were endorsed-a defining moment for NWICO, but one which was short-lived. The veneer of agreement was thin; instead of bringing the sides together, the process merely exposed the gulf between them and entrenched the positions, especially of West governments mired within Cold War geo-politics.

NWICO, spearheaded by the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) of UN countries focused on:
The “free flow” doctrine of information flow, which was reinforcing the dominance of western media and news content;

The growing concentration of the media and communication industry translating into more foreign ownership of media in smaller and poorer countries;
How the growing importance of western-controlled technologies to media production and dissemination was making it difficult for others to keep up.

The USA led a “counter-offensive” on UNESCO, supported strongly by the private media industry and lobbies. The main charge was that less developed countries were attempting to impose government control of media, and to suppress freedom of the press - despite the fact that press freedom was strongly endorsed at every turn by NWICO. The US (in 1984) and UK (in 1985) eventually withdrew from UNESCO, partly due to NWICO.

While the newly politicised “information society” was becoming ascendant, NWICO in its original form had declined. It did manage to stay on the UNESCO agenda, though with little action, until 1987. With the “New Communication Strategy” under new UNESCO Director-General Federico Mayor in 1989, it basically died out. Yet the arguments that animated the NWICO movement continued, and even in some respects became sharper. The arguments continued to surface in new calls-outside of governments this time - for “communication rights”.

For many, the main lesson from NWICO was that the way forward would have to be through the democratization of media and communication, rather than through state - or industry - led efforts to create new global orders. In practice, a major shift was needed towards civil society, which had so far been largely excluded. Those that had been involved - mainly journalists’ organizations and some academics -continued debating in the form of the MacBride Round Table, which met annually from 1989 to 1999, and brought new civil society actors into the discussion.

By the 1990s, various coalitions were formed and initiatives taken to address the larger picture underlying many of these concerns, among them the People’s Communication Charter and the Platform for Democratization of Communication. Many broad-based conferences and meetings were held to pull the threads together and exchange understanding internationally.

CLICK for full text of MacBride report


Under British Rule

- Bengal Gazette (English weekly) published by James Augustus Hicky in 1780 Jan 29th from Calcutta. It was the first news paper in South Asian sub- continent

- Bengal Gazette alias ‘Hicky Gazette’, ‘Calcutta General Advertiser’

- Declaration ‘a weekly political and commercial paper open to all but influenced by none’

- Hicky had his own column, many persons wrote by pen names.

- Bengal Gazette could not survive more than two years due to sharp confrontation with Governer General Warren Hastings and Chief Justice Elijah Impey.

- Indian Gazette as a rival to Bengal Gazette, published in the same year (1780) by Peter Read, a salt agent (backing by Hastings).

- After Bengal Gazette, other publications from India were- Madras Courier weekly (1785), Bombay Herald weekly (1789) merged into Bombay Gazette in 1791, Hurukaru weekly (1793), Calcutta Chronicle (1818), Bengal Journal, Indian world, Bengal Harkarer etc.

- In the early period newspapers in India were run by Britishers.


A renowned man of the pen – born in Bombay – his father, a British citizen was a government officer in India – Rudyard joined Civil and Military Gazette (Lahore) in 1872 at the age of 17- worked for five years in Gazette- then moved to the Pioneer- his writings specially monologue and fictions were very impressive- ‘writing and every thing associated with, is a glorious fun’, ‘I love both the fun and riot of writing’- after suffering from malaria he was compelled to left India and went to England in1890- he served about 7 years in India as a journalist- he is still remembered as a creative journalist in the history of Indian journalism- reflections of his Indian experience can be seen in his several writings.

Indian’s involvement in publication

- Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the pioneer Indian journalist and social reformer

- By his inspiration Gangadhar Bhattacharjee published Bengal Gazette (1816),
the first Indian owned English daily newspaper, but could not survive long

- Raja’s own publications- Sambad Kaumudi (Bengali 1821), Mirut ul Akhbar (Persian 1822) and Brahminical Magazine (English 1822)

- Press Regulation –1823 imposed by British govt. in India to control newspapers.

- The regulation was used as a tool to deport James Silk Buckingham, Editor of Calcutta Chronicle.

- Raja presented a petition to Supreme Court to protest the regulation in favour of J.S. Buckingham.

- It was his bold step for the preservation of press freedom, however he defeated the case.

- Anti reformists Hindu fundamentalists published Samachar Chandrika weekly to challenge Raja’s social reforms.

- Raja passed away in 1833

- 1857 Mutiny (the first war of Indian independence) was a turning point to Indian journalism.

- In the issue of mutiny, British owned press and Indian owned press blamed each other in the lowest level.

- British owned press acted like blood mongers of Indians.

- This event worked as a fuel to Indian owned press against the British rule in India.

- Pioneers Indian journalists on those days- Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Gangadhar Bhattacharjee, Bhawani Charan Bannerjee, Dwarkanath Tagore, Girish Chandra Ghose, Harischandra Mukharjee, Ishworchandra Vidyasagar, Kristo Pal, Manmohan Ghose, Keshub Chander Sen etc.

- Other major publications by Indians- The Reformer, Enquirer, Gyan Auneshun, Bengal Herald, Bang Doot, Hindu Patriot, Indian Mirror, Sulab Samachar, etc.

After Mutiny

- Standard, The Bombay Times and Telegraph merged into Times of India in 1861, Robert Knight was the owner , he was also owner of Statesman daily (1875) from Calcutta, Indian Economist monthly and Agriculture Gazette of India, his editorials and writings were balanced and impressive.

- Other major publications- Indu Prakash weekly, Gyan Prakash, Lokhitavadi (all 1861), Amrit Bazar Patrika (1868 Cacutta), Pioneer (1872 Allahbad), The Hindu (1878 Chennai) , Keshari (marathi) and The Maratha (English) (both in1878 from Pune by veteran freedom fighter Balgangadhar Tilak)

- Pioneer Indian Journalists- Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahadev Govinda Ranade, Dadabhoi Naoroji, Gopal Rao Hari Deshmukh, Vishu Shastri Pandit, Karsondas Mulji, Bal Sashtri Jambhekar etc.

- British govt. enacted Vernacular Press Act-1878 to suppress Indian language newspapers

- Indian National Congress (INC) founded in 1885.

- It was led by many nationalists like Surendranath Banerjee, Balgangadhar Tilak, Dadabhoi Naoroji, Motilal Gosh, Bipin Chandra Pal, G. Subramania Aiyer, etc., who were active journalists too.

- After establishment of INC, Indian press became an important part of struggle for independence.

Leading Newspapers After Establishment of INC

-1900- Bangalee English Daily (ed)- Surendranath Banarjee

-1901- New India English Weekly (ew)- Bipinchandra Pal

- 1901- Bande Mataram – Bengalee weekly- Bipinchandra Pal

- 1906- Yugantar – Bengali daily- Barendra kumar Ghose

- 1909- Leader- ed- Madan Mohan Malviya

- 1913- New India –ed- Annie Besant

- 1913- Bombay Chronicle –ed- Phiroj Shah Mehata

- 1918 –Justice- ed- Dr.T.M.Nair (published by non- Brahmin movement in Madras)

- 1918 – Searchlight- English biweekly- Shachindranath Sinha

-1919- The Independent -ed– Pandit Motilal Neharu

- 1919- Young India – ed- Mahatma Gandhi

- 1920 – Nav Jeevan – Gujarati weeky- Mahatma Gandhi

- 1922- Swarajya- ed- T.Prakasham

- 1923- Forward- ed- Chittaranjan Das

- 1923- The Hindustan Times –ed- K.M. Panikar (first daily in Delhi)

- 1929- Liberty-ed- Subhas Chandra Bose

-1932- Harijan- Gujarati weekly- Mahatma Gandhi

- 1938- National Herald- Jawaharlal Neharu

- Viceroy Lord Curzon Vs. Indian press

- In 1907 series of arrests and prosecutions against the journalists and press

- India Press Act –1910 asked for heavy security deposits

- 963 publications and press were prosecuted under the act

- 173 new printing press and 129 newspapers were killed at their birth by the weapon of security deposits

- British govt. collected about 5 lakhs Indian Rs. in the first year of the act enforcement

- During the First world war (1914-1918) Indian press were divided.

- The act was forcely executed against the press who were not in support of British side in the world war.

- In 1919 Jaliawala Bagh massacre was a big disaster to the Indian press.

- Even the Anglo- Indian press were not escaped.

The Golden Era of Indian Mission Journalism (1920 – 1947)

- Declaration of non-cooperation movement against British rule in India.

- Press marched shoulder to shoulder with satyagrahis.

- Mahatma Gandhi lauded for freedom of expression, ideas and people’s sentiments

- Gandhi would not accept adv., he believed newspapers should survive on the revenue from subscribers

- He would not accept any restrictions on the paper, he rather close it down

- His writings were widely circulated and reproduced in the newspapers all over the country

- A big challenge to non-Gandhian newspapers.

- Gandhi declared ‘Salt Satyagraha’ in 1930

- The nationalist press played a memorable role, which perhaps is unique in the history of any freedom movement.

- Press ordinance issued in 1930 to suppress Indian press through heavy security deposits.

- When second world war broke out , British rulers became more suppressive to the Indian press

- In 1940 UP government directed the press to submit the headlines of the news to the secretary of the information department for his pre- approval

- In response to this, National Herald (newspaper run by Jawaharlal Neharu) published the news without headlines

- Second world war and freedom fight gave more fuel to Indian press

- Britishers charged them as ‘ pro-Hitler’

- All India Newspaper Editors Conference held in 1940 at Delhi voiced against the suppressive attitude of the British govt.

- Fresh suppression and struggle started from 1942 when Quit India Movement initiated

- Many press, publications and journalists including Neharu suspended and arrested in1942

- It continued until the declaration of independence in1947 August

- K. Rama Rao, Editor, Swarajya “ It was more than a vocation, it was a mission and the newspaper was a noble enterprise working for patriotic purpose”.

1947 Onwards

- India received independence from British rule on 1947 August 15th

- The press celebrated the independence, because it was their victory too.

- At the beginning of independence the relation between the national govt. and press was good, but a year after situation was changed

- P. M. Neharu, Sardar Ballav Bhai Patel, etc. were not happy with the press.

- Press Commission- 1952, report- 1954

- Recommendations – Press Council, press registrar, minimum basic salary for working journalists, strengthen the role of the editors

- The working journalist act-1955

- The newspaper (price and page) act- 1956

- Press Council established – 1965

- P.M. Mrs. Indira Gandhi declared state of emergency on 1975 June

- It was a shocking blow to the freedom of press

- Ignored the press freedom guaranteed by article 19 (1) in the constitution

- Heavy censorship during the emergency period under Defence Rule “ in order to maintain public order…”

- 1975 Dec 8th ordinance banned the publication of all ‘ objectionable matter’, no permission to report parliament, close down Press Council , blaming it was failed to curb provocative writings

- During 19 months of emergency 253 journalists detained and 7 foreign correspondence expelled

- When Janata Dal came into power, all the restrictions over press were removed

- After emergency Indian press became more professional along with high tech., simultaneous publications increased, tremendous change in the contents, more supplements, booming of specialized magazines

- Press Council re- established under new act- 28 member, chaired by retired judge of high court

According to UNESCO

Top circulation

The Times of India – approx. 18 lakh copies / day

The Indian Express – approx. 15 lakh copies / day

Total no. of all publications – approx. 40 thousand
Out of them dailies- 4,453 (including 320 English dailies)
NOTE : Circulation information may differ in changing situation.

The Times of India – 1861
Amrit Bazar Patrika – 1868
Pioneer - 1872
The Statesman - 1875
The Hindu - 1878


- Amateur Radio Club started local broadcasting in 1924 at Madras

- Indian Broadcasting co.(private) 1927- Bombay and Calcutta

- Indian State Broadcasting Service – 1930

- Name changed as All India Radio (AIR) / Aakashbani

- Before independence AIR stations in Hyderabad, Baroda, Mysore, Trivandrum, Aurangabad, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lukhnow, Pesawar and Dhaka

- During second World War radio became more popular in India

- After independence AIR was a major tool to dissiminate govt. information

- AIR as an ‘ electronic ambassador’ in abroad

- Now AIR have more than 200 stations covering 90% of the land and 97% of the population

- News in 24 languages including Hindi, English and many other languages of India

- From 1997 broadcasting is beeing regulated by an autonomous corporation under Prasar Bharati Act

- 12 radio sets / 100 people


- Door Darshan (DD) started as an experiment in 1959 from New Delhi, for educational purpose

- Regular broadcasting started from 1965 from New Delhi

- Indian Space Research Organization borrowed a satellite from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) in 1975

- Community TV sets in 2,400 villages

- Colour broadcasting from 1982 on the eve of Asian Games held in New Delhi

- 40 different broadcasting centers

- covers 70% of land and 87% 0f population

- programs in about a dozen languages

- 6.5 tv sets / 100 people

- after 1995 many private channels

- all TV broadcasting regulated by Prasar Bharati Act


- Press Trust of India (PTI) 1947

- Hindustan Samachar 1948

- United News of India (UNI)- 1961

- Samachar Bharati –1965

Hindustan Samachar and Samachar Bharati produce news in various Indian languages while PTI and UNI in English

- Press Information Bureau (PBI), under Ministry of Information, provides government news and information in English, Hindi, Urdu and 13 regional languages.

Monday, October 20, 2008

History of Mass Communication in PAKISTAN

Pre- Independence

- Turning point for Indian muslims was establishment of All India Muslim League in 1906, for the promotion of muslim interest

- League inspired muslims for paper publications

- By 1925 muslim press comprised 220 various publications in Urdu, English, Bengali etc.

- In 1930 muslims began their struggle for a separate state

- Then they faced the hostility with both Hindu owned press and Anglo- Indian press .

- Mohammad Ali Jinnah helped to established Dawn English weekly in 1930 from Delhi, (Dawn became daily in 1942)

- Influencial muslim papers – Azad, Jung, Dawn,The Star of India, Morning News, Manshoor, Anjam, Nawa-e-Waqt, Eastern Times, Weekly Observer, Sindha Times, New Life, Khaiber Mail, Zamindar etc.

- Dawn shifted to Karachi from Delhi after its Delhi office attacked and burnt by anti separation groups in 1947 August .

- Jung and Anjam also shifted Karachi from Delhi

Post Independence (1947- 1958)

- Press was weak in Pakistani territory

- Only Lahore, Karachi and Dhaka were ahead

- After 1949 war between India and Pakistan on Kashmir issue, press freedom has been curtailed

- Pak.govt. believed completely free press could threaten the country’s security

- Public safety act-1949 and Security of Pakistan act-1952 were sufficient to supress the press freedom

- During the first seven years of independence Pak. Govt. banned 33 newspapers in Punjab alone

- Between 1947 to 1958 no. of periodicals- 1106, dailies- 103, weeklies and biweeklies- 379

- Circulation of dailies increased from 1, 25,000 (in1948) to more than 7 lakh (in 1958)

The Authoritarian Period (1958 – 1988)

- Field Marshal Ayub Khan came into power in 1958

- He imposed system of ‘press advice’, a power to dictate press what to publish and what not

- In 1960 decline of dailies from 103 to 74, weeklies and biweeklies from 379 to 260

- In 1959 govt. took over Lahore Progressive Paper ltd., the publisher of leading English daily Pakistan Times and leading Urdu daily Imroze

- In 1961 govt. took over APP

- In 1963 Ayub Khan imposed PPO (press and publication ordinance), ‘the blackest of the black laws’

- It gave obsolute power to govt. to supress the press and to prohibit reporting on a wide range of subjects

- Second Indo-Pak war in1965 led to declared Marshal Law and Defence of Pakistan, lasted for 20 yrs.

- After Ayub Khan, his successors Yahya Khan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Zia-ul- Haq followed the same supressive attitude towards the press.

- Situation changed after sudden death of Zia ul Haq

- Care taker govt. lifted PPO and introduced RPPPO ( registration of printing press and publication ordinance) , comparatively liberal than PPO`

- 1n 1990 govt.of Benazir Bhutto ended govt. monopoly over import and distribution of newsprint paper

- Art.19 of the constitution of Pakistan provides the freedom of press, subject to a number of restrictions

- Should not against the glory of Islam, integrity, security or defense of Pakistan, friendly relation with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, related to contempt of court, defamation.

- Official secret act, Security of Pakistan act., Maintenance of public order act etc. are sufficient to punish any news organization or journalist

- In 1995 a Lahore based free lance journalist was arrested and charged for his reporting on child labour in Pakistani carpet industries.

- In 1995 June, under Maintenance of public order ordinance, license of 122 newspapers were cancelled, but nationwide strike of journalists forced the govt. to withdraw the decision

- In 1998 editor and several journalists of Urdu daily Pakistan were arrested for publishing negative aspects of Prophet Mohammad

- RPPPO is an ordinance yet

- According to RPPPO not more than 25% foreign ownership in print media, and pre- approval by the govt. is compulsory

- News paper employees (condition of service) act –1973

Out of more than 300 dailies , 6 major dailies who have more than 1 lakh circulation-
(according to UNESCO Report)

- Jung- 8,50,000
- Nawa-e- Waqt- 5 lakh
- Pakistan-2, 80,000
- Khabarain- 2,32,000
- The News – 1,20,000
- Dawn - 1,10,000

( Circulation report may changed)
- Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad are major cities for press.

- Govt. do not owned newspapers


- After the partition, India and Pakistan divided the assests of All India Radio.

- Pakistan inherited AIR stations in Lahore, Pesawar and Dhaka

- In 1949 August, Radio Pakistan formally launched in Karachi

- Now stations in 22 places

- 100% coverage

- Broadcasting in 20 languages

- 48% entertainment, 13% religious, 11 % news and current affairs,28% socio-eco

- National news bulletin 18 times / day in Urdu and English

- Govt. controls over Radio Pakistan through Pakistan Broadcasting Corp. (1973)

- After 1995 private FM increased in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad, allegation to Benazir Bhutto for giving license only to her close persons.


- PTV launched in1964 November from Lahore

- Agrrement with Nippon Electric corp.

- Colour broadcast from 1976 Dec.

- 6 centers- Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad (2), Pesawar and Quetta

- High power broadcasting stations in 32 places

- PTV-2 from 1992

- PTV World from 1998

- PTV Middle East Channel from 1999

- PTV coverage 86% population and 38% territory

- Entertainment – 56%, News and Current aff. 16%, educational 10%, religious 8%, others 10%

- PTV broadcastes 54 % program in Urdu

- Shalimar tv network (STN)- 1989

- Approved by Benzir govt.

- 54% govt. share

- Shaheen Pay tv – 1996

- Approved by Benazir’s second govt.
- Private tv with foreign investment

- Run by Shaheen Foundation, a welfare organisation of retired air force officers

- Private tv are not permitted to produce news.

- They just replay news from PTV, BBC and CNN

- All the tv channels are regulated by Pakistan Broadcasting Act-1973


- Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) – 1948
( a part of Ministry of Information and Media Development)

- Pakistan Press International (PPI) – Private

- Many other small news organizations funded by political parties and groups.

Communication and Journalism Class XII

Unit I

News Editing:

Quality of a sub editor, steps in copy reading tips on headline writing, planning a house journal/school magazing, elements of make up, tips to make up editors, Editor's job, editorial, news designer comments, News editing for print and electronic media.

Unit II

Photo Journalism:

Introduction of Photo journalism.
Handling a camera.
Use of pictures, tips for better pictures, preparing photos for photography and news photography.

Unit III

Specialized Reporting

Truth, accuracy and objectivity in reporting about events and issues, interviews and press conferences, specialized reporting – investigative, sports, crime, development and court reporting.

Unit IV

Broadcast Journalism:

The era of broadcasting.
Natures of radio and TV journalism.
Reporting on broadcast media, Editing news copy for radio and television.
News bulletin, preparing materials to be broadcasted, Introduction to online journalism.

Unit V

Press and Laws

Standards and ethics in journalism, Press Freedom and responsibility, Codes of Conduct, Press laws and regulations in Nepal, law on libel and obscenities.

Unit VI


Details of the practical works:

1. Reporting assignment on social issues. Each student should submit five items including completion of reporting assignments.
2. Production of 2 news stories each on environment, court, human rights and minorities.
3. Presentation of magazine file based on classroom assignments: News clipping of human-interest stories in the lab copy from the national newspapers – 5 items
And three news items of classroom assignment must be pasted in the lab copy.
4. Production of a wall newspaper.

Communication and Journalism Class XI

Unit I

Introduction of mass communication:

1. Definition of mass communication, elements of communication, mass media and communication
2. Communication information: key feature, information process, information life cycle
3. Mass Communication, scope and functions
4. Types of media: Print, electronic and film
5. Brief historical development of world press with emphasis on history of mass media in Nepal.

Unit II

The Concept of News:

1. Introduction to reporting
2. Source of News
3. Writing reports and news stories
4. Quality of a reporter

Unit III

News Reporting

1. Introduction to news reporting
2. News and its basic ingredients
3. Headlines
4. The news structure
5. The art of Sub-editing
6. Rewriting of news
7. Page making and lay –out

Unit IV

Freedom of Press and Human Rights:

1. Introduction to press theory
2. Definition of Freedom of Press
3. General concept of Human Rights
4. Concepts of Fundamental Rights, UN provision and Provision of the Constitution of Nepal.

Unit V


1. Knowledge of Computer and its use in mass media: preparation of profile of places and personalities.
2. Reporting assignment on social issues: at least five news-beats.
3. Production of a news story: at least one each from accident crime and events using computer.

Tuesday, October 14, 2008

Concepts and Theories Of Film


Earlier photographic optics and chemistry prohibited the recording of moving subjects except for a few experiments under special circumstances. Anything that moves produces a blur on the photographic plate or paper, and this was seen as limiting the medium's inherent capacity for Absolute Realism. The camera's inability to record motion perceived as a problem similar to its inability to record color was addressed almost immediately after the birth of the medium and solved step by step. The solution had widespread consequences: it made vulnerable the assumptions about the veracity of the medium; it produced a new graphic system to represent movement and it lead to be invention of Motion Pictures.

In the beginning all of motion pictures are screened silent until the global diffusion of sound recording technology in the period of 1927-32. This changed the structure of film industry and aesthetic dynamics of film industry. After the film became popular medium of entertainment. Film became influential and popular among mass so, some rulers as Hitlor, Stalin used film as propaganda tool during their rule.


Films are produced by recording images from the world with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or special effects. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating — or indoctrinating — citizens. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue.

Traditional films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement.

The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) had historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture, picture show, photo-play, flick, and most commonly, movie. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the cinema, and the movies.

Famous Indian Film maker Satyajit Roy identified film as a mirror of society. He opines that film should capture the social reality not only superficial. Another expert George Paul have own definition and meaning about film, he opine that film neither teach society nor life but only gives amusement. Using 'Film Liberty' it makes impossible as possible.

Renown Nepalese Film maker Nabin Subba analyze film interrelated with Culture, Market, Science and Art. He opines these all are basic component which makes film a film.

Film and Society

Capacity of capturing movement made revolution in human society. It's not only the tool amusement and propaganda but it captures history and transfers culture in generation to generation. All communicative acts and means have significance in human society. Film is not differ than others. In 1920s when film became a part of lifestyle in America, its massive effects were seen on children. Lumieres brothers invented film in 1895 and first show was held in 1903. Since then there is a debate about the relationship between film and society. Some experts opine film influence the people and others film is just a mirror of society, they are guided by normative values of society. There is divergent perspective in theorizing film.

Theories of Film

The word Theory has its etymological root in the Greek word Theoria. In ancient Greece, Theoria was a term used to refer to a group of envoys who represented each city states on the occasion of religious festivals or games. Theory is proposed explanation for set of coordinated occurrences and relationships of matters or phenomenon. In other words, a theory is systematic understanding. In this sense, theories provide "explanations of how or why things happen the way they do." Same applies in the sector of Moving Pictures. Film theories describe how and why films are. As other sector, there are divergent perspectives on film and film theory. Some experts opine film can portray the reality of society other emphasize on positive message. Some as George Paul describes film as a tool of entertainment. Giving emphasis to Film Liberty Paul opine that film nether teaches neither society nor life, it only provides amusement; there is no logics behind its arrangement.
Film theory seeks to develop concise, systematic concepts that apply to film and video. Classical film theory provides a structural framework to address classical issues of techniques, narrativity, diegesis, cinematic codes, "the image", genre, subjectivity, and authorship. Recent analysis has given rise to psychoanalytic film theory, structuralist film theory and feminist film theory. Behavioral, Structural and Cultural patterns are taking place in film study recently.
Here we discuss some of Film Theories:

1. Socialist Realism Theory — Socialist realism is a teleological-oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of socialism and communism. Although related, it should not be confused with social realism, a type of art that realistically depicts subjects of social concern.

Socialist realism was the officially approved type of art in the Soviet Union for nearly sixty years. Communist doctrine decreed that all material goods and means of production belonged to the community as a whole. This included means of producing art, which were also seen as powerful propaganda tools. During the October Revolution of 1917, the Bolsheviks established an institution called Proletkult (the Proletarian Cultural and Enlightenment Organizations) which sought to put all arts into the service of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Socialist realism became state policy in 1932 when Soviet leader Joseph Stalin promulgated the decree "On the Reconstruction of Literary and Art Organizations".

The Soviet Union exported socialist realism to virtually all of the other Communist countries, although the degree to which it was enforced there varied somewhat from country to country. It became the predominant art form across the Communist world for almost fifty years. The doctrine of socialist realism in other Soviet-controlled new People's Republics was legally enforced from 1949 to 1956. Today, arguably the only countries still focused on these aesthetic principles are North Korea, Laos, and to some extent Vietnam. The People's Republic of China occasionally reverts to socialist realism for specific purposes, such as idealised propaganda posters to promote the Chinese space program. Socialist realism had little mainstream impact in the non-Communist world, where it was widely seen as a totalitarian means of imposing state control on artists.

Socialist realism had its roots in neoclassicism and the traditions of realism in Russian literature of the 19th century that described the life of simple people. It was exemplified by the aesthetic philosophy of Maxim Gorki. The work of the Peredvizhniki ("Wanderers," a Russian realist movement of the late 19th / early 20th centuries), Jacques-Louis David and Ilya Yefimovich Repin were notable influences.
Socialist realism held that successful art depicts and glorifies the proletariat's struggle toward socialist progress. The Statute of the Union of Soviet Writers in 1934 stated that socialist realism. It demands of the artist the truthful, historically concrete representation of reality in its revolutionary development. Moreover, the truthfulness and historical concreteness of the artistic representation of reality must be linked with the task of ideological transformation and education of workers in the spirit of socialism.

Its purpose was to elevate the common worker, whether factory or agricultural, by presenting his life, work, and recreation as admirable. In other words, its goal was to educate the people in the goals and meaning of Communism. The ultimate aim was to create what Lenin called "an entirely new type of human being": New Soviet Man. Stalin described the practitioners of socialist realism as "engineers of souls". The political doctrine behind socialist realism also underlay the pervasive censorship of Communist societies many then joined Western observers in denouncing socialist realism as mere propaganda. Maxim Gorky's novel Mother and films based on it is usually considered as socialist realism.

2. Structuralist Theory —
The structuralist film theory emphasizes how films convey meaning through the use of codes and conventions not dissimilar to the way languages are used to construct meaning in communication. An example of this is understanding how the simple combination of shots can create an additional idea: the blank expression on a person's face, a piece of an appetising cherry-topped chocolate fudge cake, and then back to the person's face. While nothing in this sequence literally expresses hunger—or desire—the juxtaposition of the images convey that meaning to the audience. Unraveling this additional meaning can become quite complex. Lighting, angle, shot duration, juxtaposition, cultural context, and a wide array of other elements can actively reinforce or undermine a sequence's meaning.

3. Apparatus Theory — Apparatus theory derived in part from Marxist film theory, semiotics, and psychoanalysis, was a dominant theory within cinema studies during the 1970s. It maintains that cinema is by nature ideological because its mechanics of representation are ideological. Its mechanics of representation include the camera and editing. The central position of the spectator within the perspective of the composition is also ideological. Apparatus theory also argues that cinema maintains the dominant ideology of the culture within the viewer. Ideology is not imposed on cinema, but is part of its nature. Apparatus theory follows an institutional model of spectatorship.

4. Auteur Theory —
Auteur theory holds that a director's films reflect that director's personal creative vision, as if he or she were the primary "Auteur" (the French word for "author"). In some cases, film producers are considered to have a similar "Auteur" role for films that they have produced. In law the Auteur is the creator of a film as a work of art, and is the original copyright holder. Under European Union law the film director shall always be considered the author or one of the authors of a film. The Auteur theory was used by the directors of the nouvelle vague (new wave) movement of French cinema in the 1960s (many of whom were also critics at the Cahiers du cinéma) as justification for their intensely personal and idiosyncratic films. One of the ironies of the Auteur theory is that, at the very moment Truffaut was writing, the break-up of the Hollywood studio system during the 1950s was ushering in a period of uncertainty and conservatism in American cinema, with the result that fewer of the sort of films Truffaut admired were actually being made.

5 Feminist film Theory —
Feminist film theory is theoretical film criticism derived from feminist politics and feminist theory. Feminists have many approaches to cinema analysis, regarding the film elements analyzed and their theoretical underpinnings. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and the development of women's studies within the academy. Feminist scholars began applying the new theories arising from these movements to analyzing film. Initial attempts in the United States in the early 1970’s were generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of women characters in particular film narratives or genres and of stereotypes as a reflection of a society's view of women. Works such as Marjorie Rosen’s Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies, and the American Dream (1973) and Molly Haskell’s From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in Movies (1974) analyzed how the women portrayed in film related to the broader historical context, the stereotypes depicted, the extent to which the women were shown as active or passive, and the amount of screen time given to women.

6 Formalist Theory —
Formalist film theory is a theory of film study that is focused on the formal, or technical, elements of a film: i.e., the lighting, scoring, sound and set design, use of color, shot composition, and editing. It is a major theory of film study today. Formalism, at its most general, considers the synthesis (or lack of synthesis) of the multiple elements of film production, and the effects, emotional and intellectual, of that synthesis and of the individual elements. For example, let's take the single element of editing. A formalist might study how standard Hollywood "continuity editing" creates a more comforting effect and non-continuity or jump-cut editing might become more disconcerting or volatile.

7. Marxist Theory — Marxist film theory is one of the oldest forms of film theory. Sergei Eisenstein and many other Soviet filmmakers in the 1920s expressed ideas of Marxism through film. In fact, the Hegelian dialectic was considered best displayed in film editing through the Kuleshov Experiment and the development of montage. While this structuralist approach to Marxism and filmmaking was used, the more vociferous complaint that the Russian filmmakers had was with the narrative structure of Hollywood filmmaking.
Eisenstein's solution was to shun narrative structure by eliminating the individual protagonist and tell stories where the action is moved by the group and the story is told through a clash of one image against the next (whether in composition, motion, or idea) so that the audience is never lulled into believing that they are watching something that has not been worked over. Eisenstein himself, however, was accused by the Soviet authorities of "formalist error," of highlighting form as a thing of beauty instead of portraying the worker nobly.

8. Psychoanalysis Theory —
the concepts of psychoanalysis have been applied to films in various ways. However, the 1970s and 1980s saw the development of theory that took concepts developed by the French psychoanalyst and writer Jacques Lacan and applied them to the experience of watching a film. The film viewer is seen as the subject of a "gaze" that is largely "constructed" by the film itself, where what is on screen becomes the object of that subject's desire.
The viewing subject may be offered particular identifications (usually with a leading male character) from which to watch. The theory stresses the subject's longing for a completeness which the film may appear to offer through identification with an image; in fact, according to Lacanian theory, identification with the image is never anything but an illusion and the subject is always split simply by virtue of coming into existence.

9. Screen Theory —
Screen theory is a Marxist film theory associated with the British journal Screen in the 1970s. The theoreticians of this approach -- Colin MacCabe, Stephen Heath and Laura Mulvey -- describe the "cinematic apparatus" as a version of Althusser's Ideological State Apparatus (ISA). According to screen theory, it is the spectacle that creates the spectator and not the other way round. The fact that the subject is created and subjected at the same time by the narrative on screen is masked by the apparent realism of the communicated content.

10. Culture theory
The '60s saw the humanities undergo considerable expansion. Film programs were established in Western countries. Many film scholars came from other fields of study, which meant that many new theoretical questions were raised. More important was the sheer proliferation of theories and epistemologies, and the shift toward a new focus in cinema studies. The question of the essence of cinema was still an undercurrent in many writings but the legitimisation of cinema studies as a scientific enterprise seemed more urgent. The domination of structuralism followed by semiotics and psychoanalysis meant that cinema studies were connected to new fields. Also the politicisation of the humanities meant the import of new theories concerned with cultural philosophy and ideology, which were essentially taken from different strands of Marxism. The questions throughout that period were, therefore, scientific and political in nature.


Books in English:

1. Filming the Gods: Religion and Indian Cinema, Dwyer, Rachel. 2006. London: Routledge
2. International Encyclopedia of communications, Vol 3, Barnouw, Erik, George Gerbner, Wilbur Scharmm, Tobia L. Worth and Larry Gross. Eds. 1989, New York and Oxford ; The Annenberg school of communication university of Pennsylvania and oxford university press
3. International Communication, Continuity and Change, Thussu, Daya Kishan, 2000. London: Arnold
4. McQuail's Mass Communicaiton Theory, Denis McQuail, 2005. New Delhi : Vistaar

Books in Nepali:
१. जक्स्टापोजिसन । राई, मोहन । २००४. काठमाण्डौं शान्ती चेमजोङ्ग
२. चलचित्रकला । शर्मा, लक्ष्मीनाथ । २०३८. काठमाण्डौं साझा प्रकाशन

Presentations in Nepali:

१. वैकल्पिक चलचित्र निर्माण सम्बन्धि अवधारणापत्र । गौचन, दिपेन्द ।, २०५८, चलचित्र विकास बोर्डद्वारा काठमाण्डौंमा आयोजित 'राष्ट्रिय चलचित्र महोत्सवमा प्रस्तुत'
२. नेपालमा चलचित्र वितरण र प्रदर्शनका समस्या तथा समाधान । पौड्याल, उद्वव । २०५७, चलचित्र विकास बोर्डद्वारा विराटनगरमा आयोजित क्षेत्रिय गोष्ठिमा प्रस्तुत
३. चलचित्र र समाज । भट्टराई, प्रदिप । २०५८. नेपाल रसिया फिल्म सोसाइटी एवं चलचित्र समिक्षक समाज नेपालद्वारा आयोजित 'चलचित्र र समाज' गोष्ठिमा प्रस्तुत



Saturday, September 27, 2008

MASS MEDIA & SOCIETY ::::: A Sociological Perspective on Media

The communication media are the different technological processes that facilitate communication between (and are in the "middle" of) the sender of a message and the receiver of that message. The mass media include newspapers, magazines, radio, and films, CDs, internet, etc. The media communicate information to a large, sometimes global, audience. Near-constant exposure to media is a fundamental part of contemporary life but it is TV that draws our attention the most as one of the primary socializing agent of today's society.

• 98.3 % of households (hh) have TV sets (2.3 sets per hh)
• 99% of hh have a radio (5.6 radios per hh on average)
• 65% have cable TV
• 82% have VCR (US Census Bureau, 1996).
• by 1999: 1/2 of US hh have a home computer, 1/3 of hh have internet access @ home
• TV sets are turned on for an average of 7 hours each day
• average american spend 2.5 hours a day in front of TV ( = 38 solid days of TV viewing in a year)

Media are very integral part of our lives and therefore they generate popular interest and debate about any social problem that we can think of.

• Does TV have too much sex and violence?
• Are the news media biased?
• Have TV talkshows gone too far with their sensationalized topics?
• Should the content of Internet be regulated?
• Are media shaping our values?
• IS TV harmful for our children?
• Do media drive foreign policy?
• Are newspapers insensitive to minorities?
• Is emphasis on body image harmful to our society?
• Should the names of rape victims be reported?
• Should tobacco advertising be restricted?
• Should the media cover criminal trials?
• Do media reports of crime heighten the fears of citizens?
• Is coverage of political campaigns fair?
• Is advertising ethical?
• Do paparazzi threaten First Amendment Rights?
• Does concentration of ownership jeopardize media content?
• Does the globalization of media industries homogenize media content?

In order to address such questions we need an understanding of the mass media's role in contemporary social life. What is the nature of the relationship between media and society? From a sociological perspective we can consider the role of media in our daily lives (the micro level) within the context of larger social forces such as the economy, politics, religion and technological development (the macro level)

Mass Media and Socialization

Socialization is the process of developing a sense of self connected to a larger social world through learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of one's culture. Through socialization we learn to perform certain roles as citizens, friends, lovers, workers, and so forth. Through internalization our culture becomes taken-for-granted. We learn to behave in socially appropriate and acceptable ways. Some social institutions have explicit roles in socializing the young (such as the family and schools) and others have less intentional but still powerful roles in the process (such as adolescent peers).

Where do the media fit in this process? An average American high school graduate spent more time in front of the TV than in the classroom (Graber 1980). The mass media is a powerful socializing agent. For sociologists significance of the media is not limited to the content of media messages. Media affect how we learn about our world and interact with one another. Media literally mediate our relationship with social institutions. We base most of our knowledge on government news accounts, not experience. We are dependent on the media for what we know and how we relate to the world of politics because of the media-politics connection. We read or watch political debates followed by instant analysis and commentary by "experts." Politicians rely on media to communicate their message. Similar dynamics are present in other mediated events such as televised sports and televangelism. media is part of our routine relations with family and friends. They define our interaction with other people on a daily basis as a diversion, sources of conflict, or a unifying force. Media have an impact on society not only through the content of the message but also through the process.

Sociological Imagination (C. Wright Mills 1959)

Sociological imagination helps us grasp the relationship between history and biography. Through a sociological imagination we can see how our personal lives are connected to social world (micro-macro connection). Our personal choices are shaped by larger social forces around us such as the historical or cultural context and social institutions. In this context, media's importance is apparent. Media often act as the bridge between our personal/private lives and the public world. We see ourselves and our place in society through mass media. It is because of this connection that we need to pay special attention to mass media if we want to understand how society functions.
Media play many different - and maybe incompatible- roles. For the audiences, it is a source of entertainment and information while for media workers, media is an industry that offer jobs- and therefore income, prestige and professional identity-. For the owners, the media is a source of profit and a source of political power. For society at larger, the media can be a way to transmit information and values (socialization). Therefore depending on whose perspective and which role we focus on we might see a different media picture.

Structure vs Agency

By structure sociologists suggest constraint on human action while agency indicates independent action. Each social relationship we will look at will exhibit this tension between the structure and agency. Social structure "describes any recurring pattern of social behavior" (Croteau and Hoynes 2000: 21). For example, family structure could be defined as a pattern of behaviors associated with the culturally defined idea of 'family.' Another example is educational system which is a structure comprised of students, teachers, administrators in their 'expected roles.' Having an education makes it possible for many Americans to achieve a better life standard but it also can be very constraining (required courses, assignments, deadlines, grading criteria that limit actions of students and teachers). When we talk about structure in this class it is very important to consider the constraining nature of structure. Therefore it is inevitable that we will also refer to agency in the same context. Agency is intentional and undetermined human action. For example, even though the educational system is rigid in many ways it is up to the student how much time and energy to be spent on schoolwork. Students do have agency however that agency is limited by the structural constraints.

It is very important that we recognize how human agency reproduces social structure. As we accept and act out our appropriate roles in this system we reproduce the system. Therefore, while structure constrains agency, "it is human agency that both maintains and alters social structures" (Croteau and Hoynes 2000: 22).

Class Perspective:

Below are some questions we will try to answer in this class through a sociological perspective. Our class will take a critical look at media's role in society. Therefore we will question taken-for-granted assumptions about how things work.
• Who owns the media- and why does it matter?
• How are media products created?
• What should be government's relation to regulating the media?
• Why are some images and ideas so prevalent in the mass media, while others are marginalized? Whose voices are not heard?
• How has growth in mass media influenced the political process?
• What impact do mass media have on our society and on our world?
• How do people use and interpret the mass media?
• What is the effect of technological change?
• What is the significance of the increasing globalization of mass media?

Wednesday, August 27, 2008

The 10 rules of writing news for television

By Jessica Grillanda

If you think television news is simplistic, cliché and shallow, there
are many examples to prove you right. It conjures images of anchors
with bob cuts giving the “Coles Notes” on the day’s car crashes and
town fairs. But when it’s done right, television is more than
aesthetics and abbreviations.

Television is the most powerful medium available to newsmakers. Did
you just wait to read about the collapse of the Twin Towers in the
paper the next day? Television can deliver the moving images, sounds
and stories that affect our lives and those of people half a world

Getting it right takes much more skill than weaving a good tale,
recording bed sound or capturing emotive close-ups. It takes
synchronizing all these elements into a cohesive story that appeals to
both the eyes and ears.

Here are a few tips for students on producing a television news story
to prove the “print snob” wrong.

News is the story you tell. In television, the story can’t be told
without images to cover it. It sounds simple, but a good television
piece is planned well before you hit the record button on your camera.
If it’s important to explain—“David Pearson is the science director of
Science North in Sudbury. He is also a leading researcher in Ontario
on climate change”—you need visuals to cover your words. Plan ahead
and ensure you shoot not just your interview but sequences of Pearson
studying weather charts or giving a talk on the subject.

Okay, you forgot. Can you just put a subtitle that says, “David Pearson
—Science Director and Climate Change Researcher— Sudbury”? Yes, but
only if your audience doesn’t need to know who he is. If your subject
needs no introduction (e.g., Jane Doe on the street thinks the
potholes are too big), then by all means put up a super. But you can’t
count on your viewer to watch, listen and read simultaneously.

Images can be deafening. If your visuals do not support your words,
your audience will remember the visuals but not the news. If you are
explaining how faulty wiring led to a blaze while showing video of the
charcoal remains of a house, don’t expect your audience to pay
attention to your well-researched details. If you say it, show it.

Nonetheless, don’t waste your time trying to say what the pictures
already do. What insight does your audience gain by showing a quiet
suburban neighbourhood and then saying, “This is a quiet suburban
neighbourhood”? Give your viewers the information to understand why
they are looking at those photos. “This is the first murder on record
in Sleepytown.”

Just because you aren’t describing your images doesn’t mean you
shouldn’t refer to them. If you show us a set of closed doors, tell us
“The meeting is taking place behind THESE doors.”

You show a shot of a group of kids at a fair with a clown and then
say, “Kids are clowning around….” The pun is fun, and feels like
genius in the edit suite after a long day of work, but it usually
detracts from the news.

If you are doing a story on water pollution and say, “The toxic soup
goes in here and comes out here,” plan your images to change at the
precise time your sentence takes a turn. Synchronizing your words with
your images may take some rewriting, but ensures your audience is
following with both its eyes and ears.

Time is a luxury in television news and your impulse may be to cram as
many words into that two-minute story as possible. But then, your
audience would rather just watch the figure skater’s triple-axis
finale. When images speak loudly, you shouldn’t try to talk over them.

Television is an audio-visual medium, so don’t forget the audio.
Before you tell us, “And with that Canada took the gold in figure
skating,” let us listen to the crowd erupt in applause. Your pictures
and sounds tell the story too. Don’t compete with them.

Sequences and script timing and natural sound don’t matter if you
don’t cover the 5 Ws. When you are finished your piece, sit back and
ask yourself whether you told the story. That’s your job.

Jessica Grillanda is coordinator of broadcast-new media at Cambrian
College in Sudbury.

Tuesday, August 26, 2008

John Milton's Areopagitica

When John Milton wrote Areopagitica (1644) to argue against a proposal in the British Parliament that would require licences to print books, he was writing an impassioned plea both for his own intellectual freedom and for the ideal of free speech. The principal argument, couched in Protestant doctrine, is that the knowledge of good and evil is complementary—that a person cannot know what is good without knowing what is evil. According to Milton, preventing wrong-headed or evil books from being printed would only make it harder for citizens to know what books are correct or good.

Excerpt from Areopagitica

I deny not but that it is of greatest concernment in the church and commonwealth to have a vigilant eye how books demean themselves, as well as men; and thereafter to confine, imprison, and do sharpest justice on them as malefactors; for books are not absolutely dead things, but do contain a potency of life in them to be as active as that soul was whose progeny they are; nay, they do preserve as in a vial the purest efficacy and extraction of that living intellect that bred them. I know they are as lively, and as vigorously productive, as those fabulous dragon’s teeth: and being sown up and down may chance to spring up armed men. And yet, on the other hand, unless wariness be used, as good almost kill a man as kill a good book: who kills a man kills a reasonable creature, God’s image; but he who destroys a good book kills reason itself, kills the image of God, as it were, in the eye. Many a man lives a burden to the earth; but a good book is the precious lifeblood of a master spirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond life. Tis true, no age can restore a life, whereof perhaps there is no great loss; and revolutions of ages do not oft recover the loss of a rejected truth, for the want of which whole nations fare the worse. We should be wary, therefore, what persecution we raise against the living labours of public men, how we spill that seasoned life of man preserved and stored up in books; since we see a kind of homicide may be thus committed, sometimes a martyrdom; and if it extend to the whole impression, a kind of massacre, whereof the execution ends not in the slaying of an elemental life, but strikes at that ethereal and fifth essence, the breath of reason itself; slays an immortality rather than a life...

Good and evil we know in the field of this world grow up together almost inseparably; and the knowledge of good is so involved and interwoven with the knowledge of evil, and in so many cunning resemblances hardly to be discerned, that those confused seeds which were imposed on Psyche as an incessant labour to cull out, and sort asunder, were not more intermixed. It was from out [of] the rind of one apple tasted, that the knowledge of good and evil, as two twins cleaving together, leaped forth into the world. And perhaps this is that doom which Adam fell into of knowing good and evil—that is to say, of knowing good by evil. As therefore the state of man now is; what wisdom can there be to choose, what continence to forbear, without the knowledge of evil? He that can apprehend and consider vice with all her baits and seeming pleasures, and yet abstain, and yet distinguish, and yet prefer that which is truly better, he is the true warfaring Christian. I cannot praise a fugitive and cloistered virtue unexercised and unbreathed, that never sallies out and seeks her adversary, but slinks out of the race, where that immortal garland is to be run for, not without dust and heat. Assuredly we bring not innocence into the world, we bring impurity much rather; that which purifies us is trial, and trial is by what is contrary. That virtue therefore which is but a youngling in the contemplation of evil, and knows not the utmost that vice promises to her followers, and rejects it, is but a blank virtue, not a pure; her whiteness is but an excremental whiteness; which was the reason why our sage and serious poet Spenser (whom I dare be known to think a better teacher than Scotus or Aquinas) describing true temperance under the person of Guion, brings him in with his palmer through the cave of Mammon, and the bower of earthly bliss, that he might see and know, and yet abstain.

Since therefore the knowledge and survey of vice is in this world so necessary to the constituting of human virtue, and the scanning of error to the confirmation of truth, how can we more safely, and with less danger, scout into the regions of sin and falsity, than by reading all manner of tractates, and hearing all manner of reason? And this is the benefit which may be had of books promiscuously read...

Many there be that complain of divine providence for suffering Adam to transgress. Foolish tongues! when God gave him reason, he gave him freedom to choose, for reason is but choosing; he had been else a mere artificial Adam such an Adam as he is in the motions. We ourselves esteem not of that obedience, or love, or gift, which is of force. God therefore left him free, set before him a provoking object, ever almost in his eyes; herein consisted his merit, herein the right of his reward, the praise of his abstinence. Wherefore did he create passions within us, pleasures round about us, but that these rightly tempered are the very ingredients of virtue? They are not skilful considerers of human things who imagine to remove sin by removing the matter of sin; for, besides that it is a huge heap increasing under the very act of diminishing, though some part of it may for a time be withdrawn from some persons, it cannot from all, in such a universal thing as books are; and when this is done, yet the sin remains entire. Though ye take from a covetous man all his treasure, he has yet one jewel left, ye cannot bereave him of his covetousness. Banish all objects of lust, shut up all youth into the severest discipline that can be exercised in any hermitage, ye cannot make them chaste that came not thither so: such great care and wisdom is required to the right managing of this point. Suppose we could expel sin by this means; look how much we thus expel of sin, so much we expel of virtue: for the matter of them both is the same: remove that, and ye remove them both alike. This justifies the high providence of God, who, though he command us temperance, justice, continence, yet pours out before us, even to a profuseness, all desirable things, and gives us minds that can wander beyond all limit and saitety. Why should we then affect a rigour contrary to the manner of God and of nature, by abridging or scanting those means, which books freely permitted are, both to the trial of virtue and the exercise of truth?

Gerbner's General Model (1956)

Gerbner's General Model emphasizes the dynamic nature of human communication. It also gives prominence to the factors which may affect fidelity. The model shown diagrammatically is to be read from left to right, beginning at E - Event.

• The event (E) is perceived by M (the man (sic) or machine).
• The process of perception is not simply a matter of 'taking a picture' of event E. It is a process of active interpretation.
• The way that the E is perceived will be determined by a variety of factors, such as the assumptions, attitudes, point of view, experience of M.
• E can be a person talking, sending a letter, telephoning, or otherwise communicating with M. In other words, E could be what we conventionally call the Source or Transmitter.
• Equally, E can be an event - a car crash, rain, waves crashing on a beach, a natural disaster etc. In this case, we could be applying the model to mass media communication, say the reporting of news.

The model is a useful starting-point for the analysis of wide variety of communication acts. Note that the model, besides drawing our attention to those factors within E which will determine perception or interpretation of E, also draws our attention to three important factors:

• Selection: M, the perceiver of the event E (or receiver of the message, if you prefer) selects from the event, paying more attention to this aspect and less to that. This process of selecting, filtering is commonly known as gatekeeping, particularly in discussion of the media's selection and discarding of events or aspects of them.
• Context: a factor often omitted from communication models, but a vitally important factor. The sound represented by the spelling 'hair' means an animal in one context, something that's not supposed to be in your soup in another. Shouting, ranting and raving means this man's very angry in one context, raving loony in another.
• Availability: how many Es are there around? What difference does availability make? If there are fewer Es around, we are likely to pay more attention to the ones there are. They are likely to be perceived by us as more 'meaningful'. What sort of Es are there - for example, in the UK's mainly Conservative press, how many non-Conservative messages are available to us?

Gerbner: E1 and M
E1 is the event-as-perceived (E) by the man (sic) or machine M. In terms of human communication, a person perceives an event. The perception (E1) they have of that event is more or less close to the 'real' event. The degree of correspondence between M's perception of event E (E1) will be a function of M's assumptions, point of view, experiences, social factors etc.

Gerbner: Means and Controls
In the next stage of the model, M becomes the Source of a message about E to someone else. M produces a statement about the event (SE). To send that message, M has to use channels (or media) over which he has a greater or lesser degree of control. The question of 'control' relates to M's degree of skill in using communication channels. If using a verbal channel, how good is he at using words? If using the Internet, how good is he at using new technology and words? And so on? 'Control' may also be a matter of access - does he own this medium? can he get to use this medium? Think of teachers in classrooms controlling the access to communication channels, parents at home, owners of newspapers, editors of letters pages etc.

Gerbner: SE
SE (statement about event) is what we would more normally call the 'message'. S stands for Signal in fact, so in principle an S can be present without an E, but in that case it would be noise only. The process can be extended ad infinitum by adding on other receivers (M2, M3etc.) who have further perceptions (SE1, SE2 etc.) of the statements about perceived events.

Saturday, August 16, 2008

Journalist: The Social Scientist

Sciences are broadly divided in to natural (or physical) sciences and social sciences. Social sciences include various disciplines dealing with human life. They consist of Anthropology, Economics, Education, Geography, History, Behavior Science, Commerce, Demography, Law, Linguistics, Management, Political Science, Psychology, Public Administration, Sociology, and Social work. Though these sciences are treated as separate branches of knowledge for the purpose of study, they are interdependent studies of the different aspects of same object- human being. By applying scientific method of study, the social sciences have grown and advanced man's knowledge of himself. Journalism is a discipline under social science.
Social sciences are not exact science like physical sciences, as they, unlike the latter, deal with human beings. Human nature and man's environment are so complex that it is more difficult to comprehend and predict human behavior than the physical phenomena. Hence, we can say, by terming Journalism social science we are referring to scientific attitude. A scientific attitude is many things in many situations. It requires consistent thinking, stern pursuit of accurate data (or fact), stubborn determination to analyze one's own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Evidence, tests, proof are the pillars of a stern court of "evidential confrontation". We have to think of science as an activity, a means of finding things out in which personal and vested interests avoided. It is based on observable evidence, which has been carefully recorded (or, reported in case of journalism) and presented to make it as close to the actual observation as possible. This attention to recording and presenting the observations carefully and precisely is part of the effort to make the studies scientific. The purpose of each study or reporting is to seek to know something better, more deeply, and more clearly by applying rational, logical rules of analysis to the empirical evidence gathered through observation.
J. Arthur Thomson, in his book Introduction to Science, says, "What makes a science is not, of course, the nature of things with which it is concerned, but the method by which it deals with these things." Similarly, Karl Pearson (The Grammar of Science) says, "The man who classifies facts of any kind, who sees their mutual relations and describes their sequences is applying the scientific method and is a man of science.... It is not the facts themselves which make science, but the method by which they are dealt with." Thus a journalist could be a scientist by having scientific method and scientific attitude. According to O.R. Krishnaswami, the scientific method is based on certain "articles of faith"; these are: reliance on empirical evidence, use of relevant concepts, commitment to objectivity, ethical neutrality, generalization, verifiability, logical reasoning process. Objectivity is the sine qua non of the scientific method. Since journalism is a social science discipline, strict objectivity is next to impossibility, it is possible to attain a reasonable level of objectivity.
The journalists are social scientists, not natural scientists. As Karl Pearson states (in the book "The Grammar of Science"), every group of social phenomena, every phase of social life, every stage of past and present development is material for the social scientist. This is true in case of journalists too. The scientific attitude helps journalist to deal scientifically with all these materials. This approach leads a journalist to become a researcher rather than a mere collector of information about happenings.
It is important to learn to present the news clearly, accurately, concisely, and interestingly and to know how to interpret it when necessary. Journalism is a restless profession, as changeable as the news in which deals. With the media becoming complex and also specialized, the work environment of a journalist has become even competitive. The working pattern of these days' journalists differs in various aspects as compared to journalists of few years ago. The need of journalists to be a researcher is one of such differences.
Experts, such as Wimmer and Dominick, opine that print media reporters and social scientists now have more in common with each other, because of two recent trends. The first trend is precision journalism, a technique of inquiry in which social science research methods are used to gather the news. Essentially, precision journalism is the use of social science methods and information by journalists; it takes two forms. In active precision journalism, reporters conduct surveys or other research. In reactive precision journalism, they use reports already assembled by government agencies, universities, and private forms. Precision journalists attempt to make journalism more scientific. They assess the views of citizens through systematic sampling rather than through random interviews. Unlike the standard use of polls, precision journalism presents statistical information within the context of traditional news stories. Tables, graphs, and statistics are used along with interviews that serve as examples. Thus, experts say, precision journalism can provide a fuller and more exact view of the community. To use this technique, journalists must be trained in social science methods such as survey research, experimental design, questionnaire, sampling, data presentation, and content analysis, etc. They need to understand how to apply statistical tests or direct some one else to do so. DeFleur and Dennis rightly say that precision journalism pushes the whole field of reporting toward science. The second trend is known as database journalism. This form of reporting is said to rely upon computer-assisted analysis of existing information files.
It is not that research is useful in only precision journalism and database journalism. These are the fields that have been using techniques of social science research while reporting. Research has greater scope than that. In fact, research is very useful in every piece of news reporting. It guides journalists to search facts in scientific way. Since journalism is the profession which seeks revealing truth and the research is pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the scope of research in the filed of journalism is obvious.
Research has been defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Some view it as an art of scientific investigation. This clearly helps in maintaining truth, objectivity, accuracy and fairness. Over the years, news media practitioners, as well as their critics have expressed considerable concern about objectivity, and accuracy, reality, truth, fairness in news stories. Scholars opine that the media are not merely a conduit; they have the responsibility to assess the validity or truth of the information they disseminate. The journalists need to be fair as well as truthful, accurate as well as objective. For this, research, undoubtedly, is the only tool. This clearly emphasizes the need of a journalist to be a researcher.
By adopting techniques of social science research, the journalist adopts scientific attitude as well as practice, which help in attaining the principal goal of journalism -that is, finding truth and reporting it to general people.

निर्मलमणि अधिकारीको शोधपत्र ''हिन्दू अवधारणामा सञ्चार प्रक्रिया''को सारांश

निर्मलमणि अधिकारीद्वारा पूर्वाञ्चल विश्वविद्यालय अर्न्तर्गत आमसञ्चार र पत्रकारिता विषयको स्नातकोत्तर तह, दोस्रो वर्ष (चौथो सेमेस्टर) को शैक्षणिक प्रयोजनका लागि "हिन्दू अवधारणामा सञ्चार प्रक्रिया" शिर्षकमा शोधपत्र तयार पारिएको थियो । त्यसपछि समाजशास्त्रीय जर्नलमा समेत प्रकाशन भइसकेको उक्त शोधपत्रले नेपालका साथै भारत र अमेरिकामा पनि चर्चा पाइसकेको छ । साधारणीकरण ढाँचा भनेर सञ्चारको पृथक् ढाँचा (कम्युनिकेसन मोडल) समेत प्रस्तुत गर्न सफल भएकाले उक्त शोधलाई अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय ख्यात्रि्राप्त सञ्चारविद्हरूले महत्वपूर्ण मानेका हुन् ।

(क) सारांश -
प्रस्तुत शोधपत्रको पहिलो प्रकरण परिचयात्मक प्रकृतिको रहेको छ । यस प्रकरणका पाँच खण्डहरू रहेका छन्, जसमध्ये पहिलो खण्डमा केही पृष्ठभूमिगत चर्चाका साथै समस्या कथन प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । नेपाली संस्कृतिको मूलआधार हिन्दूधर्म भएकाले सञ्चार प्रक्रियालाई नेपाली सन्दर्भमा बुझ्नकालागि पनि यस सम्बन्धी हिन्दू अवधारणा अध्ययन हुनु जरुरी छ । 'पश्चिमा संस्कृति' र 'हिन्दू संस्कृति' पृथक् पृथक् सांस्कृतिक-व्यक्तित्व भएकाले जीवन र जगत्का बारेमा हिन्दू अवधारणा र पश्चिमा अवधारणामा आधारभूत अन्तर छ । के त्यस्तो पृथक्ताको असर सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको सन्दर्भमा पनि परेको छ - के सञ्चार प्रक्रियाका दुई अवयवका रूपमा रहेका शाब्दिक सञ्चार र गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारलाई हिन्दू अवधारणाको छुट्टै स्वरूपमा अध्ययन गर्न सकिन्छ - ती कुन मानकमा पश्चिमा अवधारणा भन्दा पृथक् होलान् - के हिन्दू संस्कृतिको मुख्य विशेषताका रूपमा मानिने आध्यात्मिकतासँग सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको हिन्दू अवधारणा निरपेक्ष रहन सक्ला - के कुनै हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तको निरूपण गर्न सकिन्छ - पश्चिमा विद्वानहरूका विभिन्न सिद्धान्तसँगै विभिन्न प्रकारका सञ्चार-ढाँचाहरू प्रस्तुत भएजस्तै हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तलाई कुनै ढाँचामा प्रस्तुत गर्न सकिएला - पश्चिमा अवधारणासँग तुलना गर्दा हिन्दू अवधारणाका मौलिक विशेषता के हुन् त - यस्ता आधारभूत अवधारणात्मक सवालहरू नै यस शोधकार्यका प्रस्थान बिन्दु रहेका छन् ।

पहिलो प्रकरणको दोस्रो खण्डमा यस शोधको औचित्य, आवश्यकता तथा महत्व बारेमा स्पष्ट पार्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ । सञ्चार प्रक्रियालाई राम्ररी बुझ्न यसलाई र्सार्वजनीन स्तरमा मात्र होइन कि अन्तरसांस्कृतिक स्तरमा पनि हेर्नैपर्ने मान्यता स्थापित भइसकेको सन्दर्भमा हिन्दूसंस्कृति विश्वका अन्य संस्कृतिहरूको माझमा पृथक् पहिचान भएको संस्कृतिविशेष भएकाले सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको विशेष 'हिन्दू अवधारणा' खोज्नु औचित्यपूर्ण छ । सञ्चारको पश्चिमा अवधारणा भारतवर्षा जस्ताको तस्तै स्वीकार गर्न मिल्दैन । नेपाल लगायतका भारतवर्षीय मुलुकको सञ्चार परम्परालाई हिन्दुत्वको छत्रछायाँमा नै भेट्न सकिन्छ । आज संसारमा सञ्चारलाई आफ्ना-आफ्ना सन्दर्भमा व्याख्या, पुनर्व्याख्या वा परिभाषित गर्ने कार्य व्यापक रूपमा चलिसकेको परिवेशमा नेपालजस्तो सभ्यता र संस्कृतिमा सम्पन्न मुलुकमा यस खालका शोध नगरिनु बुद्धिमानी होइन । त्यसैले सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक अध्ययन औचित्यपूर्ण साथै आवश्यक पनि छ । यसबाट हिन्दू-इतिहासको व्यापक कालखण्डलाई बुझ्ने दिशामा उल्लेख्य प्राप्ति हुने, सञ्चार सिद्धान्त साथै परम्परागत मिडियालाई समष्टिमा जान्न र सदुपयोग गर्न मद्दत मिल्ने, नयाँ पुस्ताका हिन्दूलाई हिन्दू-समाजमा सामाजिकीकरण गर्न प्रभावकारी उपायको अवलम्बनमा पनि यसबाट मद्दत पुग्ने जस्ता कारण दिँदै यसको महत्व दर्शाइएको छ । शोधपत्रको मूल विषय-वस्तुको औचित्य, आवश्यकता र महत्व बारेमा चर्चा गरेपछि यस विषयमा नेपालभित्रबाट यो नै पहिलो शोधपत्र भएको उल्लेख समेत यस खण्डमा गरिएको छ ।

पहिलो प्रकरणको तेस्रो खण्डमा यस शोधकार्यका साधारण र विशिष्ट उद्देश्य उल्लेख गरिएको छ । साधारण उद्देश्य गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चार तथा शाब्दिक सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक अध्ययन गर्ने, हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्त निरूपण गर्ने र सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको हिन्दू अवधारणालाई पश्चिमा अवधारणासँग सामान्य तुलनात्मक अध्ययन गर्ने रहेका छन् । विशिष्ट उद्देश्य दार्शनिक आधारका रूपमा 'मीमांसादर्शन' लिई भरतमुनिकृत 'नाट्यशास्त्र'लाई आधार मानी गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारको तथा भर्तृहरिकृत 'वाक्यपदीय'लाई आधार मानी शाब्दिक सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक अध्ययन गर्ने र हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तको रूपमा 'साधारणीकरण'को अध्ययन गरी हिन्दू अवधारणालाई पश्चिमा अवधारणासँग सामान्य तुलना गर्ने रहेका छन् ।

पहिलो प्रकरणको चौथो खण्डमा शोधकार्यका प्रमेय र सीमाङ्कन उल्लेख गरिएका छन् । प्रमेय अर्न्तर्गत 'सञ्चारको पश्चिमा अवधारणा' भन्नाले सुप्रसिद्ध ग्रीसेली दार्शनिक अरस्तुको वाक्कला (रेटोरिक) सम्बन्धी अवधारणाको परम्परामा रही बनेका सम्पूर्ण सञ्चार-ढाँचा एवं सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तलाई जनाइएको उल्लेख गर्दै हाल मूलधारमा रहेको पश्चिमा-सञ्चार-अवधारणा मूलतः अरस्तेली अवधारणाकै निरन्तरता हो भन्ने पनि मानिएको छ । हिन्दूत्वलाई धर्म, अर्थ, काम, मोक्ष सबै पुरूषार्थलाई समुचित महत्व दिने एवं आधिभौतिक, आधिदैविक, आध्यात्मिक तीनै तहको सुसंयोजन भएको मान्दै आध्यात्मिकता हिन्दू समाजको मूल-प्रवृत्ति र भौतिकता पश्चिमा समाजको मूल-प्रवृत्ति रहेको भन्ने प्रमेयलाई प्रस्तुत शोधपत्रले आधार मानेको छ । सीमाङ्कनमा समयगत, अध्ययनक्षेत्रगत तथा साधन-स्रोतजन्य सीमितताका चर्चा गरिनुका साथै उपयुक्त पुस्तकालय तथा यथेष्ट पूर्व-कार्यको अनुपलब्धताको गुनासो पनि पोखिएको छ ।

पहिलो प्रकरणको पाँचौं खण्डमा महत्वपूर्ण शब्दावलीका अर्थ तथा परिभाषा दिइएको छ । जसअर्न्तर्गत पहिले 'हिन्दू अवधारणा' र पछि 'सञ्चार प्रक्रिया' बारेमा चर्चा गरिएको छ । हिन्दू शब्द र यससँग सम्बद्ध विविध शब्दावलीका अनेक पक्षहरूको चर्चा गरिसकेपछि यस शोध प्रयोजनको निमित्त निम्नानुसारका तत्वहरूलाई हिन्दूत्वको आधार मानिएको छ-

- मूलमन्त्र
- वेद वा/तथा वैदिक परम्पराका मत वा शास्त्रमा आस्था
- निराकार वा/तथा साकार परम्सत्तामा अखण्ड विश्वास
- मूर्त वा अमूर्तको पूजा वा ध्यान
- कर्म अनुसारको फल मिल्दछ भन्नेमा विश्वास
- 'आत्मा' तथा 'पुनर्जन्म'मा विश्वास
- मानवजीवनको परम्लक्ष्यका रूपमा 'मोक्ष'
अन्त्यमा 'हिन्दूअवधारणा' को परिभाषा पनि यसै खण्डमा दिइएको छ ।

त्यसपछि सञ्चार बारेमा चर्चा गर्दै यस शोधप्रयोजनकालागि सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको औपचारिक परिभाषा निम्नानुसार दिइएको छ- "सञ्चार प्रक्रिया भन्नाले मानवका ती सबै वैयक्तिक वा सामाजिक-सांस्कृतिक क्रियाकलापलाई सम्झनु पर्दछ, जसमा कुनै सन्देश वा अर्थपूर्ण संकेतको सम्प्रेषणबाट प्रक्रियामा संलग्न सदस्यबीच साझेदारी वा समझदारीको सामान्य सम्बन्ध कायम हुन जान्छ ।" साथै सञ्चार प्रक्रियाका दुई अवयवका रूपमा शाब्दिक सञ्चार र गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारको उल्लेख पनि भएको छ । आधुनिक सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको ढाँचा पनि यसै खण्डमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।

प्रस्तुत शोधपत्रको दोस्रो प्रकरणमा पूर्व-कार्यहरूको सामान्य समीक्षा गर्ने क्रममा पहिले नेपालबाहिरबाट प्रकाशित सामग्रीको र त्यसपछि नेपालबाट प्रकाशित सामग्रीको चर्चा गरिएको छ । यस शोधकर्ताको अध्ययनबाट देखिएअनुसार सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणा खोज्ने पहल सन् १९७१ मा सम्भवतः पहिलोपल्ट गरिएको उल्लेख गर्दै सन् १९८० यस क्रममा कोसेढुङ्गा मानिएको छ । हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्त विभिन्न लेख तथा कार्यपत्रको विषयवस्तु बनेको देखिएतापनि यस विषयमा शोधकार्य भएको भने नपाइएको र यस सन्दर्भमा लेखिएको सिङ्गो पुस्तक एउटै पनि नभेटिएको चर्चा पनि यस प्रकरणमा गरिएको छ । तत्पश्चात् सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक अध्ययनमा पूर्ववर्ती अध्ययनहरूको तुलनामा प्रस्तुत शोधपत्रको थप योगदान बारेमा प्रष्ट्याउने प्रयास गरिएको छ ।

यस शोधकार्यको शोध-ढाँचाका बारेमा तेस्रो प्रकरणमा चर्चा गरिएको छ । सञ्चार शोध अर्न्तर्गत यो सन्देशअभिमुख शोध भएको चर्चा गर्दै सन्देशअभिमुख शोध अर्न्तर्गतपनि प्रलेखात्मक शोध र प्रलेखात्मक पक्षमा पनि यो शोधकार्य मूलतः पुस्तकालयीय/प्रलेखात्मक शोध भएको बताइएको छ । यस शोधकार्यमा 'जनसंख्या'का रूपमा सम्पूर्ण हिन्दूशास्त्रहरूलाई मान्दै तिनीहरूमध्येबाट प्रयोजनपरक नमूना छनोटमा नाट्यशास्त्र, वाक्यपदीय र मीमांसार्-दर्शनलाई चयन गरिएको छ । तथ्य-सङ्कलनको निमित्त यसमा द्वितियक स्रोतहरूको प्रयोग गरिएको चर्चा गर्दै पूर्व-प्रकाशित एवं पुस्तकालयमा उपलब्ध प्रलेख नै तथ्यका स्रोतका रूपमा रहेका पनि बताइएको छ । स्रोत-ग्रन्थको अध्ययन गरी तिनमा रहेका सम्बद्ध अंशहरूको टिपोट नै यस शोधकार्यको मुख्य तथ्य-सङ्कलन विधि रहेको छ भने तथ्यहरूको व्याख्यात्मक तथा तुलनात्मक चर्चाबाट तर्कसम्मत आधार स्थापना गर्नु नै यस शोधकार्यको विश्लेषण विधि रहेको छ । अन्त्यमा तथ्यहरूको विश्लेषणअनुरूप आगमनात्मक निष्कर्षा पुग्ने विधिलाई यस शोधपत्रले अंगीकार गरेको छ ।
चौथो प्रकरण प्रस्तुत शोधपत्रको मुख्य भागका रूपमा रहेको छ, जहाँ तथ्यहरूको प्रस्तुतिकरण र विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस प्रकरणको पहिलो खण्डमा सर्वप्रथम नमूना छनोटमा परेका शास्त्र -नाट्यशास्त्र, वाक्यपदीय र मीमांसार्-दर्शन) को सामान्य परिचयका साथमा तिनीहरूलाई छनोट गरिनुको कारण बारेमा चर्चा, दोस्रो खण्डमा गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारको तथा तेस्रो खण्डमा शाब्दिक सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक अध्ययन गरिएको छ । हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तको रूपमा 'साधारणीकरण'को निरूपण यसै प्रकरणको चौथो खण्डमा गरी त्यसको ढाँचा -साधारणीकरण ढाँचा) समेत दिइएको छ । अन्त्यमा चौथो प्रकरणकै पाँचौं खण्डमा सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको हिन्दू सिद्धान्तलाई पश्चिमा सिद्धान्तसँग तुलनात्मक अध्ययन गरिएको छ ।

(ख) निष्कर्ष -
गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारः

(क) शाब्दिक र गैर-शाब्दिक दुवै क्रियाहरूमा सूचना निहित रहेको हुन्छ भन्ने तथ्यमा प्राचीन कालदेखि नै हिन्दूहरू विज्ञ रहेको देखिन्छ ।

(ख) नाट्यशास्त्रमा अङ्गोपाङ्गका कर्महरू बारेमा गरिएको वर्ण्र्ााहिन्दू समाजमा लौकिक व्यवहारमा प्रयुक्त 'नन्र्-भर्बल कम्युनिकेसन' अर्थात् 'गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चार'को शास्त्रीयरूप हो । नाट्यशास्त्रमा वणिर्त 'आङ्गकि' तथा 'आहार्य' अभिनयहरूले गैरशाब्दिक सञ्चारको स्वरूप प्रस्तुत गर्दछन् । शारीर चेष्टा, मुहारभाव तथा शरीर स्वयम्मा सञ्चारको माध्यम, यिनको एकदमै स्पष्टतः र विषद् वर्णन नाट्यशास्त्रमा पाइन्छ । कुनैपनि मानवका हरेक क्रियाहरू सञ्चारको व्यापक परिधि भित्र समेटिएका हुन्छन् र केही कुरा पनि सञ्चारविहीन हुँदैन भन्ने तथ्य हिन्दूहरूलाई प्राचीन कालदेखि नै ज्ञात रहेको देखिन्छ ।
(ग) हिन्दू अवधारणा अनुसार चक्षु, रसना, घ्राण, र्स्पर्शन (त्वक्), श्रोत्र -कर्ण्र्ाायी पाँचका अतिरिक्त मन समेत छओटा इन्द्रिय छन् ।

चक्षुलाई तैजसरूप मानिएको छभने यसले चाक्षुष (भिजुअल) सन्देश ग्रहण गर्दछ । रसनालाई जलीयरूप मानिएको छभने यसले रसात्मक (टेस्ट्) सन्देश ग्रहण गर्दछ । घ्राणलाई पार्थिवरूप मानिएको छभने यसले नस्य (ओल्फ्याक्टोरी) सन्देश ग्रहण गर्दछ । त्वक्लाई वायवीयरूप मानिएको छ भने यसले स्पृश्य (ट्याक्टाइल) सन्देश ग्रहण गर्दछ । कर्ण्र्ााई आकाशरूप मानिएको छभने यसले श्रव्य (अडिटरी) सन्देश ग्रहण गर्दछ । इन्द्रियहरूको कार्यमा मनलाई कार्य वहन गर्ने 'विभु'को रूपमा मानिएको छ । इन्द्रियहरूको साथमा बाह्य सर्म्पर्क गर्नमा मन माध्यमको रूपमा रहेको हुन्छ र त्यही माध्यम प्रयोग गरी आत्माले बाह्य जगत्को ज्ञान प्राप्त गर्दछ । आत्मा अनुभवकर्ता अथवा फलोपभोक्ता हो; शरीर अनुभवको स्थान हो; र इन्द्रियहरूचाहिं अनुभवका साधन हुन् ।

(घ) शारिरीक हावभाव जस्तो चेतन मनको नियन्त्रणभन्दा परै समेत घटित हुनसक्ने क्रियाकलापलाई पनि स्वेच्छाले सञ्चालन गरी अपेक्षित सन्देश दिन सकिने हिन्दू अवधारणा रहेको देखिन्छ । यो कुरा अचेतन वा अर्धचेतन मनद्वारा निर्देशित क्रियाकलापमाथि समेत नियन्त्रण गर्न सक्षम 'आत्मा'को शासनमा इन्द्रियलाई राख्नुपर्ने हिन्दू मत अनुकुल रहेको छ ।

(घ) हिन्दू संस्कृतिमा रहेको आध्यात्मिक चेतनाको प्रभाव गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणामा पनि परेको छ । तर यो भौतिक जगत्बाट निरपेक्ष भने रहेको छैन । वास्तवमा भौतिक एवम् आध्यात्मिक दुवै सत्यको सुसंयोजन गर्ने हिन्दूत्वको विशेषताको प्रत्यक्ष प्रभाव गैर-शाब्दिक हिन्दू-सञ्चार-अवधारणाका सन्दर्भमा पनि परेको छ ।

शाब्दिक सञ्चारः

(क) हिन्दूसंस्कृतिमा शब्दको महिमा खुब गाइएको छ । प्राचीन हिन्दूहरू शब्दको दुवै स्वरूप -लेखात्मक र भाषात्मक) बारेमा विज्ञ थिए । भाषिक प्रतीक आफ्नो मूल प्रकृतिमा ध्वनिपरक हुन्छ भन्ने आधुनिक भाषाविज्ञानको मान्यता अनुकूल प्राचीन कालदेखिनै हिन्दू अवधारणामा शब्दलाई 'श्रोत्रेन्द्रियग्राह्य' मानिएको पाइन्छ ।

(ख) विभिन्न साक्ष्यहरूबाट 'वैदिक' कालमा लेखन-कलाको प्रशस्त प्रचार रहेको देखिन्छ ।

(ग) हिन्दू परम्परामा भाषाका चार रूप मानिएका छन्( परा, पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा र वैखरी । पहिलेका तीन अवस्थाका शब्द गुप्त अव्यक्त छन्, चौथो अवस्थाको व्यक्तशब्दलाई नै मनुष्यहरूको बोलीले प्रकाश गर्दछ भनी वेदवाक्यले निरूपण गरेको छ । वाक्यपदीयमा त्यही वैदिक मत प्रतिबिम्बित भएको छ । वैखरी शब्दको बाह्य र खुट्ट्याउन सकिने रूप अवस्था हो, जहाँ वाक्लाई वक्ताले उच्चारण गर्दछ र श्रोताले श्रवण गर्दछ । प्राण अथवा श्वासले वागेन्द्रिय तथा श्रवणेन्द्रियलाई ध्वनिको क्रमबद्ध उत्पादन तथा ग्रहण गर्न सक्षम तुल्याउँछ । प्राण अथवा श्वास नै वैखरी वाक्को कारण हो । यसभन्दा आन्तरिक तहमा जाँदा मध्यमा वाक् चाहिं मुख्यतया बुद्धिसँग सम्बद्ध छ । कुनै कुरा बोलिनुअघि वक्ताले दिमागमा सोचेको कुरा वा कुनै कुरा सुनिसकेपछि श्रोताले आफ्नो मनमा मनन गरेको कुरालाई मध्यमा वाक्को उदाहरणका रूपमा लिन सकिन्छ । यस अवस्थामा शब्द र अर्थको सम्बन्ध व्यक्तिलाई ज्ञात भइसकेको हुन्छ तापनि तिनको पृथक् पृथक् अस्तित्व पनि रहेकै हुन्छ । अझ आभ्यन्तरिक तहको पश्यन्ती अवस्थामा चाहिं शब्द र अर्थको पृथक् पृथक् अस्तित्व हुँदैन; यी दुई एकाकार भइसकेका हुन्छन् । यो तह अन्तर्ज्ञर्ााो हो र यहाँ अनुभूतिले नै ज्ञान हुन्छ । योभन्दा परको 'परा' अवस्थामा नपुगी 'शब्दब्रह्म' साक्षात्कार हुँदैन भन्ने वैदिक मत रहेको छ ।

(घ) जीवन र जगत्को अन्तिम लक्ष्य ब्रह्म नै हो भन्ने सिद्धान्तको प्रतिपादन वैयाकरणको दृष्टिबाट वाक्यपदीयमा भएको छ र यो आस्तिक हिन्दू दर्शनहरूसँग मतैक्यता राख्ने दृष्टिकोण हो ।
(ङ) आधुनिक विद्वान भाषाको दुई रूप लांग र परोल अर्थात् मध्यमा र वैखरीमै रोकिए, भारतवषर्ीय मनीषी दुई तह अझ अघि बढेका छन्, परा र पश्यन्तीसम्म । पश्चिमा दर्शन मूलतः भौतिकवादी भएकाले बढी भन्दा बढी यसमा मानसिक तह (अर्धचेतन तथा अवचेतन मन) सम्ममात्र यसको दृष्टि पुगेको छ । हिन्दू धारणामा भौतिक स्वरूपलाईमात्र सम्पूर्णा नमानी त्यसभित्रको परमतत्वलाई पनि चिन्ने प्रयास गरिने प्रवृत्ति अनुरूप भौतिक र मानसिक तहलाई समेट्दै अझ उच्चतम् तह अर्थात् आध्यात्मिकतासम्म पुगेको देखिन्छ । हिन्दू संस्कृतिमा रहेको आध्यात्मिक चेतनाको प्रभाव शाब्दिक सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणामा प्रत्यक्षतः एवम् निर्ण्ाायक तवरले परेको छ । तर यो भौतिक जगत्बाट निरपेक्ष भने रहेको छैन । जहाँ पश्चिमा अवधारणा भौतिक सत्यप्रतिको अत्यधिक आग्रहले एकाङ्गी बनेको छ; शाब्दिक हिन्दू-सञ्चार-अवधारणाको निर्माण भौतिक एवम् आध्यात्मिक दुवै सत्यको सुसंयोजन भएर नै भएको छ ।


(क) भारतवर्षीय- वा हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तको विकास प्राचीनकालमा कहिले भयो भन्ने तथ्य अस्पष्ट छ । हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तका रूपमा निरूपित 'साधारणीकरण'को निमित्त दशौं शताब्दीका काव्याशास्त्राचार्य भट्टनायकलाई जस दिने मूल प्रवृत्तिका साथै सिद्धान्तलाई वैदिककालसम्म नै तन्काउने प्रयत्न पनि भएका छन् ।

(ख) भट्टनायकले मानव-मानव बीचमा सन्देशको आदान-प्रदानको मुख्य उद्देश्य आपसमा भावको साझेदारी वा साझा अनुभूति नै हो भन्ने मानेर त्यस प्रक्रियालाई 'साधारणीकरण'को रूपमा व्याख्या गरेका हुन् । पश्चिमा सन्दर्भमा 'कम्युनिकेसन' शब्दको व्युत्पत्ति हर्ेदा कम्युनिकेसन -सञ्चार) भनेको कुनै कुराको साझेदारी गर्ने प्रक्रिया हो भन्ने बुझिन्छ । तर्सथ पश्चिममा कम्युनिकेसन भनेर र पूर्वमा साधारणीकरण भनेर एकै प्रक्रियालाई बुझाउन खोजिएको देखिन्छ ।

(ग) साधारणीकरणका निम्नानुसारका तत्वहरू रहेका छन्- सहृदय (प्रेषक र प्रापक), भाव, अभिव्यञ्जन, सन्देश, सरणि, रसास्वादन, सम्भाव्य दोष, सन्दर्भ, प्रतिक्रिया ।

(घ) भारतवर्षीय काव्यशास्त्रको आधारमा निरूपित सिद्धान्त पनि हिन्दू अवधारणाका आधारभूत विशेषताबाट निरपेक्ष छैन । जसरी हिन्दूत्वले आधिभौतिक, आधिदैविक एवं आध्यात्मिक सबै तहलाई समेट्दछ, उसरी नै साधारणीकरणको क्षेत्र पनि विस्तृत रहेको छ ।

(ङ) जटिल प्रक्रियाको सरल परिणति हुनु नै साधारणीकरणको विशेषता हो ।
तुलनात्मक अध्ययनः

(क) इश्वरलाई अतिशय प्रेम गर्ने हुनाले एक आदर्श हिन्दू सारा जगत्लाईर् इश्वरकै अभिव्यक्तिको रूपमा प्रेम गर्दछ । तर्सथ हिन्दू जीवनपद्धतिमा मानवका अलावा मानवेतर सम्पूर्णा प्रकृतिप्रति समेत प्रेमपूर्ण दृष्टिकोण छ र त्यसको प्रभाव सञ्चार व्यवहारमा समेत परेको छ ।
(ख) हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक सञ्चार प्रक्रिया चक्रवत् रहेको छ, जहाँ पश्चिमा अवधारणामा त्यसलाई रेखीय मानिएको छ ।

(ग) अरस्तेली ढाँचामा सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको उद्देश्य नै प्रापकलाई प्रेषकले अभ्रि्रेरित गर्नु रहेकाले पश्चिमा अवधारणामा प्रेषकलाई महत्व दिइएको स्वतः स्पष्ट छ । यता हिन्दू पर्रि्रेक्षमा प्रेषक-प्राधान्यता वा प्रापक-केन्द्रियता परिस्थितिजन्य अवस्थामात्र हुन् । यस्तो पृष्ठभूमिमा एउटालाई मात्र प्रमुखता दिनु वस्तुनिष्ठ हुनेछैन । तर्सथ लौकिक वा भौतिक जगत्को सन्दर्भमा भन्ने हो भने पूर्वमा सम्बद्धता र अन्तरनिर्भरतालाई महत्व दिइन्छ भने साधारणीकरणलाई आध्यात्मिक सन्दर्भमा समेत हर्ेदा ब्रह्म र जीवात्माबीचको साधारणीकरणलाई 'अन्तरनिर्भर' भन्नु उपयुक्त हुनेछैन । लौकिक वा भौतिकदेखि आध्यात्मिकसम्म सबै सन्दर्भलाई प्रतिनिधित्व गर्ने गरी भन्ने हो भने सहभागीहरूको आपसी सम्बन्धलाई बुझाउने प्राविधिक संज्ञा 'सहृदय' नै भन्नुपर्ने हुन्छ ।

हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक सञ्चारमा सम्बन्ध स्वयम्लाई महत्व दिने वा सम्बन्धको हेतुलाई ख्याल राख्ने भन्ने कुरा परिस्थिति-सापेक्ष हुनजान्छ । हिन्दूहरूले आवश्यकता अनुरूप सम्बन्ध वा सम्बन्धको हेतुमध्ये कुनै एक वा दुवैको सुसंयोजनलाई महत्व दिने गर्दछन् । तर्सथ हिन्दू अवधारणा पूर्णाङ्गी छभने उता पश्चिमा अवधारणामा चाहिं सम्बन्धको हेतुलाई मात्र ख्याल राखिने भएकाले त्यो एकाङ्गी छ ।

(घ) लौकिक वा भौतिक सन्दर्भमा हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको उद्देश्य यसको आदर्शस्थितिमा भावहरूको साझेदारी, पारस्परिक समझदारी, सहमति एवं सामुहिक क्रियान्विति हो । साधारणीकरणको आदर्श उद्देश्य सहृदयहरूबीचमा साझेदारी, समभाव वा ऐक्यता हासिल गर्नु हो । उच्चतर रूपमा यसको उद्देश्य आत्मज्ञान पाई मोक्षको परम लक्ष्य हासिल गर्नु नै हो । उता पश्चिमा अवधारणामा सञ्चारको उद्देश्य उद्देश्य अभ्रि्रेरणा वा प्रापकलाई प्रेषकले अभ्रि्रेरित गर्नु रहेको छ ।

पश्चिमा संस्कृतिमा झैं इहलौकिक प्राप्तिमा मात्र कुनैपनि आदर्श हिन्दूले सन्तोष मान्दैन; तर हिन्दू दर्शनलाई भौतिक वा लौकिक जीवनप्रति अनिच्छुक र पारलौकिक वा आध्यात्मिक जीवनप्रति मात्र आकषिर्त रहेको ठान्नु चाहिं अर्को अपाङ्ग सोच हो । धर्म, अर्थ र कामलाई सदुपयोग गरी मोक्षसम्म पुग्नु हिन्दूत्वको अभीष्ट हो । यो कुरा अवश्यै होकि यदि अर्थ र काम धर्म-प्रतिकूल भएमा त्यसलाई त्याग्न तत्पर रहनुपर्दछ । संक्षेपमा भन्नुपर्दा धर्म, अर्थ, काम, मोक्ष अर्थात् पुरुषार्थ-चतुष्टयको प्राप्ति नै एक आदर्श हिन्दूको जीवन-उद्देश्य हो । त्यसैले सञ्चार क्रियाकलापलाई यी सबै सन्दर्भमा नहेरी हिन्दू अवधारणाको पूर्ण स्वरूप प्राप्त हुँदैन ।

(ङ) हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक सञ्चारलाई 'सन्दर्भ-सापेक्ष' मान्नुपर्ने हुन्छ, जबकि अरस्तेली सञ्चार-अवधारणामा 'सन्दर्भ-निरपेक्ष' रहेको छ ।

(च) सामाजिक व्यवहारमा हिन्दू संस्कृति समष्टि-प्रधान रहेको छभने आध्यात्मिक प्रयोजनमा यो सदैव व्यष्टि-केन्द्रित रहेर चिन्तन गर्दछ । यसरी वैयक्तिकता र सामुहिकताको समन्वित रूप नै हिन्दूत्वमा रहेको हुन्छ । तर्सथ व्यष्टि र समष्टि दुवैको सुसंयोजन हिन्दू अवधारणाको विशेषता हो । उता पश्चिमा सिद्धान्त व्यष्टि-प्रधान वा व्यक्तिवादी रहेको छ ।

(छ) हिन्दू अवधारणामा सञ्चारको आभ्यन्तरिक पक्ष -अन्तर्ज्ञान लाई जोड दिइएको छ भने पश्चिमा अवधारणामा बाह्य पक्ष (इन्द्रियजन्य ज्ञान) लाई जोड दिइएको छ । जसको फलस्वरूप भारतवर्षा अन्तरनिहित वा आन्तरिक सञ्चार तथा पश्चिममा आमसञ्चारलाई जोड दिइएको पाइन्छ । प्रायः सबै आमसञ्चारका प्रविधि पश्चिममै आविष्कार गरिनु र अर्कोतर्फअन्तर्ज्ञनको साधन अर्थात् 'योग'को विकास चाहिं भारतवर्षा जति भयो, त्यो तहसम्म पश्चिम कहिल्यै नपुग्नुको कारण पनि यही हो ।