Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Nepalese Media System and Journalism (JMC. 515)

Tribhuvan University
Master Level/II Year/ Humanities Full Marks: 100
Nepalese Media System and Journalism (JMC. 515)
Group "A"

(Long- answer Questions
1. Describe the national and international conditions in which print , audio and audio–visual media have emerged in Nepal.
2. What are the objectives of National Communication Policy, 2049 B.S. ? Why policy interventions does it make achieve these objectives?
3. Give a brief account of media regulation system in Nepal. How do you evaluate the implementation aspects of Nepalese media regulations?
4. "Nepal has made big achievements in community radio broadcasting." Do you agree?

Group "B"
5. How do production houses and broadcasting stations differ from each other?
6. What are the different kinds of broadcasting services functioning in Nepal?
7. What is the role of private sector in the development of films in Nepal?
8. Explain the present status of Right to Information in Nepal.
9. Assess the relevance of the long-term Communication Policy, 2059B.S.
10. Why has foreign investment in media been a topical issue in Nepal?

Sunday, March 29, 2009

Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)

Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Attempt any THREE questions from Group 'A' and FOUR from group 'B'
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions

1. Critically examine the role of news contents in the Nepalese broadcast
2. How do you assess the growth of daily newspapers in Nepal?
3. Discuss the principles of media pluralism.
4. Evaluate the code of conduct developed by Press Council (Nepal) for
Group B (4x7.5=30 ) Short Answer Questions

5. What are the key principles of journalism?
6. How far have the Nepalese media been able to reach the people? Give
7. Explain the role of newsreels.
8. Discuss the impact of documentary films as an information channel.
9. Examine the functioning of alternative media.
10. Write short notes on any TWO.
a. Vertical ownership b. Documentary films c. Press associations
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions
1. Discuss the role of news media in democratic participation of people.
2. Examine the financial investment climate for media houses in Nepal after
3. How do you assess the application of the basic principles of journalism
in the Nepalese media?
4. Why is radio the most relevant media for Nepal?
Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions

5. Explain media values in principle and practice.
6. What are the main stages of journalism's growth in Nepal?
7. Discuss the impact of media on society.
8. How does media contribute to informing the public accuracy and fairly?
9. Examine the practice of development journalism in Nepal, with emphasis on
illustrations and graphics.
10. Write short notes on any Two:
a. Cross-ownership b. Gate-keepers c. Newsreels.
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions
1. Discuss the factors that led to the late arrival of journalism in Nepal.
2. What are the main theories of modern journalism?
3. How has the restoration of multi-party democracy affected the growth and
development of various news media in Nepal?
4. How do you assess the application of 'ABC of journalism' in the Nepalese
Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions

5. Discuss the various stages of development of journalism in the world with
special reference to Nepal.
6. What is development journalism?
7. Why is monopoly in media against the spirit of democracy? Give examples.
8. List and elaborate the various broadcast media and their presence in
9. Examine the use and abuse of illustrations in news magazines.
10. Write short notes on any two:
a. Documentary Films. b. New sells in Nepal. c. Gate-keeping.
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions

1. Discuss media freedom, with special focus on licentiousness versus social
2. How do you take the good ethical decisions? Describe in the light of
ethical principles of journalism.
3. What is the dilemma of objectivity and subjectivity in journalism?
4. Why the use of photographs, graphics and other illustrative materials is
given priority in a magazine?
Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions

5. Media watch mechanism in Nepal.
6. Inclusiveness in media functioning and service.
7. What is gate-keeping and how it works in media?
8. Community and commercial radio.
9. Describe various types of lenses and their uses.
10. What is journalistic fairness?

Sunday, March 8, 2009

Media-imperialism Versus cultural identity

If we ask question that do the mass media produce direct, immediate and powerful influences on the audiences, then a simple yes or no answer is not possible. Sometimes the media seem powerful and sometimes not. We can see that an international 'media culture' has come to stay in which certain languages, cultures and types of story have come to find wide influences in all over the world. The mass media play a crucial role in almost all aspects of daily life in these days. The sociological significance of media extends beyond the content of media messages. Their influence is not limited to what we know. People learn and internalize some values, beliefs and norms presented in the media products. Media also affect how we learn about our world and interact with one another. They provide a diversion, a source of conflict, or a unifying force. Such impact is almost obvious when we look at the ways in which the mass media mediate our relationships.

In contemporary society, it is media that most often act as the bridge between people of different origins. The media can serve as an entertainer, informer, and also as a way to transmit values or norms. The relationship between society and the media is more complex than a simple 'free flow of information' slogan might suggest. The process of 'mass communication' is not synonymous with the 'mass media', the organized technologies that make mass communication possible. The 'mass communication' remains as an abstract concept while 'mass media' has acquired a status of reality. Globalization in the field of media is not just about the technological innovations used to communicate over long distances. In addition, and perhaps more important, it also refers to the exchange and intermingling of cultures from different parts of the world. In reality, this process is quite unidirectional. Some scholars claim that the export of American and Western popular culture is latter-day imperialism.

Though there are likely to be large differences, for instance, between media those adopt or are given a significant social, cultural or political task and those that are primarily concerned with making profits. But, both types of mass media have common characteristic in the sense that they contribute in the cultural intrusion. It is a fact that most of the media have a vested interest in the Capitalist system and are inclined to give support to its most obvious defenders. The so-called Third world countries are pawns of the western-based global media and the media are like the 19th -century European colonial powers. Some people argue that Rock music encouraged youngsters to use drugs or engage in sexual behavior.

The communication flow is one way from the powerful nations to the weak ones. The result is that Western values are imposed in an impossible-to-resist way. Scholar Herbert Schiller's view is that the Western-controlled international mass media preempt native culture, a situation he sees as robbery, just like earlier colonial tapping of natural resources to enrich the home countries. 'Influence on people' is not only the final stage in the process of mass communication but also the bottom line of public concern. It is for this reason that people are worried about the effect of western mass media influence.

Communication and culture are so closely bound together that virtually all communication engaged in by humans is culturally linked. In respect of culture, according to Dennis McQuail, the mass media constitute a primary source of definitions and images of social reality and the most ubiquitous expression of shared identity. Also, they are the largest focus of leisure time interest, providing the shared 'cultural environment' for most people and more so than any other single institution. The most fundamental questions of society- those concerning the distribution and exercise of power, the management of problems and the process of integration and change- all turn on the communication. So the one way flow of communication is dangerous. It must be changed as soon as possible. Since nothing has influenced the lives of modern human society as the mass media have, we should be much more serious about it.

The consequence of media globalization should be understood properly. We should not hesitate to accept the good aspects of media influence. We know that the media often play a significant role in the adoption of new technologies and the way they are used. Media play role in diffusion of innovations. The media also change our images and interpretations. They can also change our feelings about social issue and help in decision-making. It may tell the truth so that people would have the information that they need to be sovereign. Also, there is chance of manipulation and media-imperialism. But cultural invasion in the name of globalization and modernization cannot be acceptable. Promoting conditions for the preservation of the cultural identity of every society is necessary to enable it to enjoy a harmonious inter-relationship. There should be established national cultural policies, which should foster cultural identity and creativity, and involve the media in these tasks. Such policies should also contain guidelines for safeguarding national cultural development while promoting knowledge of other cultures.

- Nirmala Mani Adhikary