Wednesday, August 27, 2008

The 10 rules of writing news for television

By Jessica Grillanda

If you think television news is simplistic, cliché and shallow, there
are many examples to prove you right. It conjures images of anchors
with bob cuts giving the “Coles Notes” on the day’s car crashes and
town fairs. But when it’s done right, television is more than
aesthetics and abbreviations.

Television is the most powerful medium available to newsmakers. Did
you just wait to read about the collapse of the Twin Towers in the
paper the next day? Television can deliver the moving images, sounds
and stories that affect our lives and those of people half a world

Getting it right takes much more skill than weaving a good tale,
recording bed sound or capturing emotive close-ups. It takes
synchronizing all these elements into a cohesive story that appeals to
both the eyes and ears.

Here are a few tips for students on producing a television news story
to prove the “print snob” wrong.

News is the story you tell. In television, the story can’t be told
without images to cover it. It sounds simple, but a good television
piece is planned well before you hit the record button on your camera.
If it’s important to explain—“David Pearson is the science director of
Science North in Sudbury. He is also a leading researcher in Ontario
on climate change”—you need visuals to cover your words. Plan ahead
and ensure you shoot not just your interview but sequences of Pearson
studying weather charts or giving a talk on the subject.

Okay, you forgot. Can you just put a subtitle that says, “David Pearson
—Science Director and Climate Change Researcher— Sudbury”? Yes, but
only if your audience doesn’t need to know who he is. If your subject
needs no introduction (e.g., Jane Doe on the street thinks the
potholes are too big), then by all means put up a super. But you can’t
count on your viewer to watch, listen and read simultaneously.

Images can be deafening. If your visuals do not support your words,
your audience will remember the visuals but not the news. If you are
explaining how faulty wiring led to a blaze while showing video of the
charcoal remains of a house, don’t expect your audience to pay
attention to your well-researched details. If you say it, show it.

Nonetheless, don’t waste your time trying to say what the pictures
already do. What insight does your audience gain by showing a quiet
suburban neighbourhood and then saying, “This is a quiet suburban
neighbourhood”? Give your viewers the information to understand why
they are looking at those photos. “This is the first murder on record
in Sleepytown.”

Just because you aren’t describing your images doesn’t mean you
shouldn’t refer to them. If you show us a set of closed doors, tell us
“The meeting is taking place behind THESE doors.”

You show a shot of a group of kids at a fair with a clown and then
say, “Kids are clowning around….” The pun is fun, and feels like
genius in the edit suite after a long day of work, but it usually
detracts from the news.

If you are doing a story on water pollution and say, “The toxic soup
goes in here and comes out here,” plan your images to change at the
precise time your sentence takes a turn. Synchronizing your words with
your images may take some rewriting, but ensures your audience is
following with both its eyes and ears.

Time is a luxury in television news and your impulse may be to cram as
many words into that two-minute story as possible. But then, your
audience would rather just watch the figure skater’s triple-axis
finale. When images speak loudly, you shouldn’t try to talk over them.

Television is an audio-visual medium, so don’t forget the audio.
Before you tell us, “And with that Canada took the gold in figure
skating,” let us listen to the crowd erupt in applause. Your pictures
and sounds tell the story too. Don’t compete with them.

Sequences and script timing and natural sound don’t matter if you
don’t cover the 5 Ws. When you are finished your piece, sit back and
ask yourself whether you told the story. That’s your job.

Jessica Grillanda is coordinator of broadcast-new media at Cambrian
College in Sudbury.

Tuesday, August 26, 2008

John Milton's Areopagitica

When John Milton wrote Areopagitica (1644) to argue against a proposal in the British Parliament that would require licences to print books, he was writing an impassioned plea both for his own intellectual freedom and for the ideal of free speech. The principal argument, couched in Protestant doctrine, is that the knowledge of good and evil is complementary—that a person cannot know what is good without knowing what is evil. According to Milton, preventing wrong-headed or evil books from being printed would only make it harder for citizens to know what books are correct or good.

Excerpt from Areopagitica

I deny not but that it is of greatest concernment in the church and commonwealth to have a vigilant eye how books demean themselves, as well as men; and thereafter to confine, imprison, and do sharpest justice on them as malefactors; for books are not absolutely dead things, but do contain a potency of life in them to be as active as that soul was whose progeny they are; nay, they do preserve as in a vial the purest efficacy and extraction of that living intellect that bred them. I know they are as lively, and as vigorously productive, as those fabulous dragon’s teeth: and being sown up and down may chance to spring up armed men. And yet, on the other hand, unless wariness be used, as good almost kill a man as kill a good book: who kills a man kills a reasonable creature, God’s image; but he who destroys a good book kills reason itself, kills the image of God, as it were, in the eye. Many a man lives a burden to the earth; but a good book is the precious lifeblood of a master spirit, embalmed and treasured up on purpose to a life beyond life. Tis true, no age can restore a life, whereof perhaps there is no great loss; and revolutions of ages do not oft recover the loss of a rejected truth, for the want of which whole nations fare the worse. We should be wary, therefore, what persecution we raise against the living labours of public men, how we spill that seasoned life of man preserved and stored up in books; since we see a kind of homicide may be thus committed, sometimes a martyrdom; and if it extend to the whole impression, a kind of massacre, whereof the execution ends not in the slaying of an elemental life, but strikes at that ethereal and fifth essence, the breath of reason itself; slays an immortality rather than a life...

Good and evil we know in the field of this world grow up together almost inseparably; and the knowledge of good is so involved and interwoven with the knowledge of evil, and in so many cunning resemblances hardly to be discerned, that those confused seeds which were imposed on Psyche as an incessant labour to cull out, and sort asunder, were not more intermixed. It was from out [of] the rind of one apple tasted, that the knowledge of good and evil, as two twins cleaving together, leaped forth into the world. And perhaps this is that doom which Adam fell into of knowing good and evil—that is to say, of knowing good by evil. As therefore the state of man now is; what wisdom can there be to choose, what continence to forbear, without the knowledge of evil? He that can apprehend and consider vice with all her baits and seeming pleasures, and yet abstain, and yet distinguish, and yet prefer that which is truly better, he is the true warfaring Christian. I cannot praise a fugitive and cloistered virtue unexercised and unbreathed, that never sallies out and seeks her adversary, but slinks out of the race, where that immortal garland is to be run for, not without dust and heat. Assuredly we bring not innocence into the world, we bring impurity much rather; that which purifies us is trial, and trial is by what is contrary. That virtue therefore which is but a youngling in the contemplation of evil, and knows not the utmost that vice promises to her followers, and rejects it, is but a blank virtue, not a pure; her whiteness is but an excremental whiteness; which was the reason why our sage and serious poet Spenser (whom I dare be known to think a better teacher than Scotus or Aquinas) describing true temperance under the person of Guion, brings him in with his palmer through the cave of Mammon, and the bower of earthly bliss, that he might see and know, and yet abstain.

Since therefore the knowledge and survey of vice is in this world so necessary to the constituting of human virtue, and the scanning of error to the confirmation of truth, how can we more safely, and with less danger, scout into the regions of sin and falsity, than by reading all manner of tractates, and hearing all manner of reason? And this is the benefit which may be had of books promiscuously read...

Many there be that complain of divine providence for suffering Adam to transgress. Foolish tongues! when God gave him reason, he gave him freedom to choose, for reason is but choosing; he had been else a mere artificial Adam such an Adam as he is in the motions. We ourselves esteem not of that obedience, or love, or gift, which is of force. God therefore left him free, set before him a provoking object, ever almost in his eyes; herein consisted his merit, herein the right of his reward, the praise of his abstinence. Wherefore did he create passions within us, pleasures round about us, but that these rightly tempered are the very ingredients of virtue? They are not skilful considerers of human things who imagine to remove sin by removing the matter of sin; for, besides that it is a huge heap increasing under the very act of diminishing, though some part of it may for a time be withdrawn from some persons, it cannot from all, in such a universal thing as books are; and when this is done, yet the sin remains entire. Though ye take from a covetous man all his treasure, he has yet one jewel left, ye cannot bereave him of his covetousness. Banish all objects of lust, shut up all youth into the severest discipline that can be exercised in any hermitage, ye cannot make them chaste that came not thither so: such great care and wisdom is required to the right managing of this point. Suppose we could expel sin by this means; look how much we thus expel of sin, so much we expel of virtue: for the matter of them both is the same: remove that, and ye remove them both alike. This justifies the high providence of God, who, though he command us temperance, justice, continence, yet pours out before us, even to a profuseness, all desirable things, and gives us minds that can wander beyond all limit and saitety. Why should we then affect a rigour contrary to the manner of God and of nature, by abridging or scanting those means, which books freely permitted are, both to the trial of virtue and the exercise of truth?

Gerbner's General Model (1956)

Gerbner's General Model emphasizes the dynamic nature of human communication. It also gives prominence to the factors which may affect fidelity. The model shown diagrammatically is to be read from left to right, beginning at E - Event.

• The event (E) is perceived by M (the man (sic) or machine).
• The process of perception is not simply a matter of 'taking a picture' of event E. It is a process of active interpretation.
• The way that the E is perceived will be determined by a variety of factors, such as the assumptions, attitudes, point of view, experience of M.
• E can be a person talking, sending a letter, telephoning, or otherwise communicating with M. In other words, E could be what we conventionally call the Source or Transmitter.
• Equally, E can be an event - a car crash, rain, waves crashing on a beach, a natural disaster etc. In this case, we could be applying the model to mass media communication, say the reporting of news.

The model is a useful starting-point for the analysis of wide variety of communication acts. Note that the model, besides drawing our attention to those factors within E which will determine perception or interpretation of E, also draws our attention to three important factors:

• Selection: M, the perceiver of the event E (or receiver of the message, if you prefer) selects from the event, paying more attention to this aspect and less to that. This process of selecting, filtering is commonly known as gatekeeping, particularly in discussion of the media's selection and discarding of events or aspects of them.
• Context: a factor often omitted from communication models, but a vitally important factor. The sound represented by the spelling 'hair' means an animal in one context, something that's not supposed to be in your soup in another. Shouting, ranting and raving means this man's very angry in one context, raving loony in another.
• Availability: how many Es are there around? What difference does availability make? If there are fewer Es around, we are likely to pay more attention to the ones there are. They are likely to be perceived by us as more 'meaningful'. What sort of Es are there - for example, in the UK's mainly Conservative press, how many non-Conservative messages are available to us?

Gerbner: E1 and M
E1 is the event-as-perceived (E) by the man (sic) or machine M. In terms of human communication, a person perceives an event. The perception (E1) they have of that event is more or less close to the 'real' event. The degree of correspondence between M's perception of event E (E1) will be a function of M's assumptions, point of view, experiences, social factors etc.

Gerbner: Means and Controls
In the next stage of the model, M becomes the Source of a message about E to someone else. M produces a statement about the event (SE). To send that message, M has to use channels (or media) over which he has a greater or lesser degree of control. The question of 'control' relates to M's degree of skill in using communication channels. If using a verbal channel, how good is he at using words? If using the Internet, how good is he at using new technology and words? And so on? 'Control' may also be a matter of access - does he own this medium? can he get to use this medium? Think of teachers in classrooms controlling the access to communication channels, parents at home, owners of newspapers, editors of letters pages etc.

Gerbner: SE
SE (statement about event) is what we would more normally call the 'message'. S stands for Signal in fact, so in principle an S can be present without an E, but in that case it would be noise only. The process can be extended ad infinitum by adding on other receivers (M2, M3etc.) who have further perceptions (SE1, SE2 etc.) of the statements about perceived events.

Saturday, August 16, 2008

Journalist: The Social Scientist

Sciences are broadly divided in to natural (or physical) sciences and social sciences. Social sciences include various disciplines dealing with human life. They consist of Anthropology, Economics, Education, Geography, History, Behavior Science, Commerce, Demography, Law, Linguistics, Management, Political Science, Psychology, Public Administration, Sociology, and Social work. Though these sciences are treated as separate branches of knowledge for the purpose of study, they are interdependent studies of the different aspects of same object- human being. By applying scientific method of study, the social sciences have grown and advanced man's knowledge of himself. Journalism is a discipline under social science.
Social sciences are not exact science like physical sciences, as they, unlike the latter, deal with human beings. Human nature and man's environment are so complex that it is more difficult to comprehend and predict human behavior than the physical phenomena. Hence, we can say, by terming Journalism social science we are referring to scientific attitude. A scientific attitude is many things in many situations. It requires consistent thinking, stern pursuit of accurate data (or fact), stubborn determination to analyze one's own system of thinking and to take nothing for granted. Evidence, tests, proof are the pillars of a stern court of "evidential confrontation". We have to think of science as an activity, a means of finding things out in which personal and vested interests avoided. It is based on observable evidence, which has been carefully recorded (or, reported in case of journalism) and presented to make it as close to the actual observation as possible. This attention to recording and presenting the observations carefully and precisely is part of the effort to make the studies scientific. The purpose of each study or reporting is to seek to know something better, more deeply, and more clearly by applying rational, logical rules of analysis to the empirical evidence gathered through observation.
J. Arthur Thomson, in his book Introduction to Science, says, "What makes a science is not, of course, the nature of things with which it is concerned, but the method by which it deals with these things." Similarly, Karl Pearson (The Grammar of Science) says, "The man who classifies facts of any kind, who sees their mutual relations and describes their sequences is applying the scientific method and is a man of science.... It is not the facts themselves which make science, but the method by which they are dealt with." Thus a journalist could be a scientist by having scientific method and scientific attitude. According to O.R. Krishnaswami, the scientific method is based on certain "articles of faith"; these are: reliance on empirical evidence, use of relevant concepts, commitment to objectivity, ethical neutrality, generalization, verifiability, logical reasoning process. Objectivity is the sine qua non of the scientific method. Since journalism is a social science discipline, strict objectivity is next to impossibility, it is possible to attain a reasonable level of objectivity.
The journalists are social scientists, not natural scientists. As Karl Pearson states (in the book "The Grammar of Science"), every group of social phenomena, every phase of social life, every stage of past and present development is material for the social scientist. This is true in case of journalists too. The scientific attitude helps journalist to deal scientifically with all these materials. This approach leads a journalist to become a researcher rather than a mere collector of information about happenings.
It is important to learn to present the news clearly, accurately, concisely, and interestingly and to know how to interpret it when necessary. Journalism is a restless profession, as changeable as the news in which deals. With the media becoming complex and also specialized, the work environment of a journalist has become even competitive. The working pattern of these days' journalists differs in various aspects as compared to journalists of few years ago. The need of journalists to be a researcher is one of such differences.
Experts, such as Wimmer and Dominick, opine that print media reporters and social scientists now have more in common with each other, because of two recent trends. The first trend is precision journalism, a technique of inquiry in which social science research methods are used to gather the news. Essentially, precision journalism is the use of social science methods and information by journalists; it takes two forms. In active precision journalism, reporters conduct surveys or other research. In reactive precision journalism, they use reports already assembled by government agencies, universities, and private forms. Precision journalists attempt to make journalism more scientific. They assess the views of citizens through systematic sampling rather than through random interviews. Unlike the standard use of polls, precision journalism presents statistical information within the context of traditional news stories. Tables, graphs, and statistics are used along with interviews that serve as examples. Thus, experts say, precision journalism can provide a fuller and more exact view of the community. To use this technique, journalists must be trained in social science methods such as survey research, experimental design, questionnaire, sampling, data presentation, and content analysis, etc. They need to understand how to apply statistical tests or direct some one else to do so. DeFleur and Dennis rightly say that precision journalism pushes the whole field of reporting toward science. The second trend is known as database journalism. This form of reporting is said to rely upon computer-assisted analysis of existing information files.
It is not that research is useful in only precision journalism and database journalism. These are the fields that have been using techniques of social science research while reporting. Research has greater scope than that. In fact, research is very useful in every piece of news reporting. It guides journalists to search facts in scientific way. Since journalism is the profession which seeks revealing truth and the research is pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment, the scope of research in the filed of journalism is obvious.
Research has been defined as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Some view it as an art of scientific investigation. This clearly helps in maintaining truth, objectivity, accuracy and fairness. Over the years, news media practitioners, as well as their critics have expressed considerable concern about objectivity, and accuracy, reality, truth, fairness in news stories. Scholars opine that the media are not merely a conduit; they have the responsibility to assess the validity or truth of the information they disseminate. The journalists need to be fair as well as truthful, accurate as well as objective. For this, research, undoubtedly, is the only tool. This clearly emphasizes the need of a journalist to be a researcher.
By adopting techniques of social science research, the journalist adopts scientific attitude as well as practice, which help in attaining the principal goal of journalism -that is, finding truth and reporting it to general people.

निर्मलमणि अधिकारीको शोधपत्र ''हिन्दू अवधारणामा सञ्चार प्रक्रिया''को सारांश

निर्मलमणि अधिकारीद्वारा पूर्वाञ्चल विश्वविद्यालय अर्न्तर्गत आमसञ्चार र पत्रकारिता विषयको स्नातकोत्तर तह, दोस्रो वर्ष (चौथो सेमेस्टर) को शैक्षणिक प्रयोजनका लागि "हिन्दू अवधारणामा सञ्चार प्रक्रिया" शिर्षकमा शोधपत्र तयार पारिएको थियो । त्यसपछि समाजशास्त्रीय जर्नलमा समेत प्रकाशन भइसकेको उक्त शोधपत्रले नेपालका साथै भारत र अमेरिकामा पनि चर्चा पाइसकेको छ । साधारणीकरण ढाँचा भनेर सञ्चारको पृथक् ढाँचा (कम्युनिकेसन मोडल) समेत प्रस्तुत गर्न सफल भएकाले उक्त शोधलाई अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय ख्यात्रि्राप्त सञ्चारविद्हरूले महत्वपूर्ण मानेका हुन् ।

(क) सारांश -
प्रस्तुत शोधपत्रको पहिलो प्रकरण परिचयात्मक प्रकृतिको रहेको छ । यस प्रकरणका पाँच खण्डहरू रहेका छन्, जसमध्ये पहिलो खण्डमा केही पृष्ठभूमिगत चर्चाका साथै समस्या कथन प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । नेपाली संस्कृतिको मूलआधार हिन्दूधर्म भएकाले सञ्चार प्रक्रियालाई नेपाली सन्दर्भमा बुझ्नकालागि पनि यस सम्बन्धी हिन्दू अवधारणा अध्ययन हुनु जरुरी छ । 'पश्चिमा संस्कृति' र 'हिन्दू संस्कृति' पृथक् पृथक् सांस्कृतिक-व्यक्तित्व भएकाले जीवन र जगत्का बारेमा हिन्दू अवधारणा र पश्चिमा अवधारणामा आधारभूत अन्तर छ । के त्यस्तो पृथक्ताको असर सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको सन्दर्भमा पनि परेको छ - के सञ्चार प्रक्रियाका दुई अवयवका रूपमा रहेका शाब्दिक सञ्चार र गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारलाई हिन्दू अवधारणाको छुट्टै स्वरूपमा अध्ययन गर्न सकिन्छ - ती कुन मानकमा पश्चिमा अवधारणा भन्दा पृथक् होलान् - के हिन्दू संस्कृतिको मुख्य विशेषताका रूपमा मानिने आध्यात्मिकतासँग सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको हिन्दू अवधारणा निरपेक्ष रहन सक्ला - के कुनै हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तको निरूपण गर्न सकिन्छ - पश्चिमा विद्वानहरूका विभिन्न सिद्धान्तसँगै विभिन्न प्रकारका सञ्चार-ढाँचाहरू प्रस्तुत भएजस्तै हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तलाई कुनै ढाँचामा प्रस्तुत गर्न सकिएला - पश्चिमा अवधारणासँग तुलना गर्दा हिन्दू अवधारणाका मौलिक विशेषता के हुन् त - यस्ता आधारभूत अवधारणात्मक सवालहरू नै यस शोधकार्यका प्रस्थान बिन्दु रहेका छन् ।

पहिलो प्रकरणको दोस्रो खण्डमा यस शोधको औचित्य, आवश्यकता तथा महत्व बारेमा स्पष्ट पार्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ । सञ्चार प्रक्रियालाई राम्ररी बुझ्न यसलाई र्सार्वजनीन स्तरमा मात्र होइन कि अन्तरसांस्कृतिक स्तरमा पनि हेर्नैपर्ने मान्यता स्थापित भइसकेको सन्दर्भमा हिन्दूसंस्कृति विश्वका अन्य संस्कृतिहरूको माझमा पृथक् पहिचान भएको संस्कृतिविशेष भएकाले सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको विशेष 'हिन्दू अवधारणा' खोज्नु औचित्यपूर्ण छ । सञ्चारको पश्चिमा अवधारणा भारतवर्षा जस्ताको तस्तै स्वीकार गर्न मिल्दैन । नेपाल लगायतका भारतवर्षीय मुलुकको सञ्चार परम्परालाई हिन्दुत्वको छत्रछायाँमा नै भेट्न सकिन्छ । आज संसारमा सञ्चारलाई आफ्ना-आफ्ना सन्दर्भमा व्याख्या, पुनर्व्याख्या वा परिभाषित गर्ने कार्य व्यापक रूपमा चलिसकेको परिवेशमा नेपालजस्तो सभ्यता र संस्कृतिमा सम्पन्न मुलुकमा यस खालका शोध नगरिनु बुद्धिमानी होइन । त्यसैले सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक अध्ययन औचित्यपूर्ण साथै आवश्यक पनि छ । यसबाट हिन्दू-इतिहासको व्यापक कालखण्डलाई बुझ्ने दिशामा उल्लेख्य प्राप्ति हुने, सञ्चार सिद्धान्त साथै परम्परागत मिडियालाई समष्टिमा जान्न र सदुपयोग गर्न मद्दत मिल्ने, नयाँ पुस्ताका हिन्दूलाई हिन्दू-समाजमा सामाजिकीकरण गर्न प्रभावकारी उपायको अवलम्बनमा पनि यसबाट मद्दत पुग्ने जस्ता कारण दिँदै यसको महत्व दर्शाइएको छ । शोधपत्रको मूल विषय-वस्तुको औचित्य, आवश्यकता र महत्व बारेमा चर्चा गरेपछि यस विषयमा नेपालभित्रबाट यो नै पहिलो शोधपत्र भएको उल्लेख समेत यस खण्डमा गरिएको छ ।

पहिलो प्रकरणको तेस्रो खण्डमा यस शोधकार्यका साधारण र विशिष्ट उद्देश्य उल्लेख गरिएको छ । साधारण उद्देश्य गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चार तथा शाब्दिक सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक अध्ययन गर्ने, हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्त निरूपण गर्ने र सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको हिन्दू अवधारणालाई पश्चिमा अवधारणासँग सामान्य तुलनात्मक अध्ययन गर्ने रहेका छन् । विशिष्ट उद्देश्य दार्शनिक आधारका रूपमा 'मीमांसादर्शन' लिई भरतमुनिकृत 'नाट्यशास्त्र'लाई आधार मानी गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारको तथा भर्तृहरिकृत 'वाक्यपदीय'लाई आधार मानी शाब्दिक सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक अध्ययन गर्ने र हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तको रूपमा 'साधारणीकरण'को अध्ययन गरी हिन्दू अवधारणालाई पश्चिमा अवधारणासँग सामान्य तुलना गर्ने रहेका छन् ।

पहिलो प्रकरणको चौथो खण्डमा शोधकार्यका प्रमेय र सीमाङ्कन उल्लेख गरिएका छन् । प्रमेय अर्न्तर्गत 'सञ्चारको पश्चिमा अवधारणा' भन्नाले सुप्रसिद्ध ग्रीसेली दार्शनिक अरस्तुको वाक्कला (रेटोरिक) सम्बन्धी अवधारणाको परम्परामा रही बनेका सम्पूर्ण सञ्चार-ढाँचा एवं सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तलाई जनाइएको उल्लेख गर्दै हाल मूलधारमा रहेको पश्चिमा-सञ्चार-अवधारणा मूलतः अरस्तेली अवधारणाकै निरन्तरता हो भन्ने पनि मानिएको छ । हिन्दूत्वलाई धर्म, अर्थ, काम, मोक्ष सबै पुरूषार्थलाई समुचित महत्व दिने एवं आधिभौतिक, आधिदैविक, आध्यात्मिक तीनै तहको सुसंयोजन भएको मान्दै आध्यात्मिकता हिन्दू समाजको मूल-प्रवृत्ति र भौतिकता पश्चिमा समाजको मूल-प्रवृत्ति रहेको भन्ने प्रमेयलाई प्रस्तुत शोधपत्रले आधार मानेको छ । सीमाङ्कनमा समयगत, अध्ययनक्षेत्रगत तथा साधन-स्रोतजन्य सीमितताका चर्चा गरिनुका साथै उपयुक्त पुस्तकालय तथा यथेष्ट पूर्व-कार्यको अनुपलब्धताको गुनासो पनि पोखिएको छ ।

पहिलो प्रकरणको पाँचौं खण्डमा महत्वपूर्ण शब्दावलीका अर्थ तथा परिभाषा दिइएको छ । जसअर्न्तर्गत पहिले 'हिन्दू अवधारणा' र पछि 'सञ्चार प्रक्रिया' बारेमा चर्चा गरिएको छ । हिन्दू शब्द र यससँग सम्बद्ध विविध शब्दावलीका अनेक पक्षहरूको चर्चा गरिसकेपछि यस शोध प्रयोजनको निमित्त निम्नानुसारका तत्वहरूलाई हिन्दूत्वको आधार मानिएको छ-

- मूलमन्त्र
- वेद वा/तथा वैदिक परम्पराका मत वा शास्त्रमा आस्था
- निराकार वा/तथा साकार परम्सत्तामा अखण्ड विश्वास
- मूर्त वा अमूर्तको पूजा वा ध्यान
- कर्म अनुसारको फल मिल्दछ भन्नेमा विश्वास
- 'आत्मा' तथा 'पुनर्जन्म'मा विश्वास
- मानवजीवनको परम्लक्ष्यका रूपमा 'मोक्ष'
अन्त्यमा 'हिन्दूअवधारणा' को परिभाषा पनि यसै खण्डमा दिइएको छ ।

त्यसपछि सञ्चार बारेमा चर्चा गर्दै यस शोधप्रयोजनकालागि सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको औपचारिक परिभाषा निम्नानुसार दिइएको छ- "सञ्चार प्रक्रिया भन्नाले मानवका ती सबै वैयक्तिक वा सामाजिक-सांस्कृतिक क्रियाकलापलाई सम्झनु पर्दछ, जसमा कुनै सन्देश वा अर्थपूर्ण संकेतको सम्प्रेषणबाट प्रक्रियामा संलग्न सदस्यबीच साझेदारी वा समझदारीको सामान्य सम्बन्ध कायम हुन जान्छ ।" साथै सञ्चार प्रक्रियाका दुई अवयवका रूपमा शाब्दिक सञ्चार र गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारको उल्लेख पनि भएको छ । आधुनिक सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको ढाँचा पनि यसै खण्डमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।

प्रस्तुत शोधपत्रको दोस्रो प्रकरणमा पूर्व-कार्यहरूको सामान्य समीक्षा गर्ने क्रममा पहिले नेपालबाहिरबाट प्रकाशित सामग्रीको र त्यसपछि नेपालबाट प्रकाशित सामग्रीको चर्चा गरिएको छ । यस शोधकर्ताको अध्ययनबाट देखिएअनुसार सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणा खोज्ने पहल सन् १९७१ मा सम्भवतः पहिलोपल्ट गरिएको उल्लेख गर्दै सन् १९८० यस क्रममा कोसेढुङ्गा मानिएको छ । हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्त विभिन्न लेख तथा कार्यपत्रको विषयवस्तु बनेको देखिएतापनि यस विषयमा शोधकार्य भएको भने नपाइएको र यस सन्दर्भमा लेखिएको सिङ्गो पुस्तक एउटै पनि नभेटिएको चर्चा पनि यस प्रकरणमा गरिएको छ । तत्पश्चात् सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक अध्ययनमा पूर्ववर्ती अध्ययनहरूको तुलनामा प्रस्तुत शोधपत्रको थप योगदान बारेमा प्रष्ट्याउने प्रयास गरिएको छ ।

यस शोधकार्यको शोध-ढाँचाका बारेमा तेस्रो प्रकरणमा चर्चा गरिएको छ । सञ्चार शोध अर्न्तर्गत यो सन्देशअभिमुख शोध भएको चर्चा गर्दै सन्देशअभिमुख शोध अर्न्तर्गतपनि प्रलेखात्मक शोध र प्रलेखात्मक पक्षमा पनि यो शोधकार्य मूलतः पुस्तकालयीय/प्रलेखात्मक शोध भएको बताइएको छ । यस शोधकार्यमा 'जनसंख्या'का रूपमा सम्पूर्ण हिन्दूशास्त्रहरूलाई मान्दै तिनीहरूमध्येबाट प्रयोजनपरक नमूना छनोटमा नाट्यशास्त्र, वाक्यपदीय र मीमांसार्-दर्शनलाई चयन गरिएको छ । तथ्य-सङ्कलनको निमित्त यसमा द्वितियक स्रोतहरूको प्रयोग गरिएको चर्चा गर्दै पूर्व-प्रकाशित एवं पुस्तकालयमा उपलब्ध प्रलेख नै तथ्यका स्रोतका रूपमा रहेका पनि बताइएको छ । स्रोत-ग्रन्थको अध्ययन गरी तिनमा रहेका सम्बद्ध अंशहरूको टिपोट नै यस शोधकार्यको मुख्य तथ्य-सङ्कलन विधि रहेको छ भने तथ्यहरूको व्याख्यात्मक तथा तुलनात्मक चर्चाबाट तर्कसम्मत आधार स्थापना गर्नु नै यस शोधकार्यको विश्लेषण विधि रहेको छ । अन्त्यमा तथ्यहरूको विश्लेषणअनुरूप आगमनात्मक निष्कर्षा पुग्ने विधिलाई यस शोधपत्रले अंगीकार गरेको छ ।
चौथो प्रकरण प्रस्तुत शोधपत्रको मुख्य भागका रूपमा रहेको छ, जहाँ तथ्यहरूको प्रस्तुतिकरण र विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस प्रकरणको पहिलो खण्डमा सर्वप्रथम नमूना छनोटमा परेका शास्त्र -नाट्यशास्त्र, वाक्यपदीय र मीमांसार्-दर्शन) को सामान्य परिचयका साथमा तिनीहरूलाई छनोट गरिनुको कारण बारेमा चर्चा, दोस्रो खण्डमा गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारको तथा तेस्रो खण्डमा शाब्दिक सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक अध्ययन गरिएको छ । हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तको रूपमा 'साधारणीकरण'को निरूपण यसै प्रकरणको चौथो खण्डमा गरी त्यसको ढाँचा -साधारणीकरण ढाँचा) समेत दिइएको छ । अन्त्यमा चौथो प्रकरणकै पाँचौं खण्डमा सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको हिन्दू सिद्धान्तलाई पश्चिमा सिद्धान्तसँग तुलनात्मक अध्ययन गरिएको छ ।

(ख) निष्कर्ष -
गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारः

(क) शाब्दिक र गैर-शाब्दिक दुवै क्रियाहरूमा सूचना निहित रहेको हुन्छ भन्ने तथ्यमा प्राचीन कालदेखि नै हिन्दूहरू विज्ञ रहेको देखिन्छ ।

(ख) नाट्यशास्त्रमा अङ्गोपाङ्गका कर्महरू बारेमा गरिएको वर्ण्र्ााहिन्दू समाजमा लौकिक व्यवहारमा प्रयुक्त 'नन्र्-भर्बल कम्युनिकेसन' अर्थात् 'गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चार'को शास्त्रीयरूप हो । नाट्यशास्त्रमा वणिर्त 'आङ्गकि' तथा 'आहार्य' अभिनयहरूले गैरशाब्दिक सञ्चारको स्वरूप प्रस्तुत गर्दछन् । शारीर चेष्टा, मुहारभाव तथा शरीर स्वयम्मा सञ्चारको माध्यम, यिनको एकदमै स्पष्टतः र विषद् वर्णन नाट्यशास्त्रमा पाइन्छ । कुनैपनि मानवका हरेक क्रियाहरू सञ्चारको व्यापक परिधि भित्र समेटिएका हुन्छन् र केही कुरा पनि सञ्चारविहीन हुँदैन भन्ने तथ्य हिन्दूहरूलाई प्राचीन कालदेखि नै ज्ञात रहेको देखिन्छ ।
(ग) हिन्दू अवधारणा अनुसार चक्षु, रसना, घ्राण, र्स्पर्शन (त्वक्), श्रोत्र -कर्ण्र्ाायी पाँचका अतिरिक्त मन समेत छओटा इन्द्रिय छन् ।

चक्षुलाई तैजसरूप मानिएको छभने यसले चाक्षुष (भिजुअल) सन्देश ग्रहण गर्दछ । रसनालाई जलीयरूप मानिएको छभने यसले रसात्मक (टेस्ट्) सन्देश ग्रहण गर्दछ । घ्राणलाई पार्थिवरूप मानिएको छभने यसले नस्य (ओल्फ्याक्टोरी) सन्देश ग्रहण गर्दछ । त्वक्लाई वायवीयरूप मानिएको छ भने यसले स्पृश्य (ट्याक्टाइल) सन्देश ग्रहण गर्दछ । कर्ण्र्ााई आकाशरूप मानिएको छभने यसले श्रव्य (अडिटरी) सन्देश ग्रहण गर्दछ । इन्द्रियहरूको कार्यमा मनलाई कार्य वहन गर्ने 'विभु'को रूपमा मानिएको छ । इन्द्रियहरूको साथमा बाह्य सर्म्पर्क गर्नमा मन माध्यमको रूपमा रहेको हुन्छ र त्यही माध्यम प्रयोग गरी आत्माले बाह्य जगत्को ज्ञान प्राप्त गर्दछ । आत्मा अनुभवकर्ता अथवा फलोपभोक्ता हो; शरीर अनुभवको स्थान हो; र इन्द्रियहरूचाहिं अनुभवका साधन हुन् ।

(घ) शारिरीक हावभाव जस्तो चेतन मनको नियन्त्रणभन्दा परै समेत घटित हुनसक्ने क्रियाकलापलाई पनि स्वेच्छाले सञ्चालन गरी अपेक्षित सन्देश दिन सकिने हिन्दू अवधारणा रहेको देखिन्छ । यो कुरा अचेतन वा अर्धचेतन मनद्वारा निर्देशित क्रियाकलापमाथि समेत नियन्त्रण गर्न सक्षम 'आत्मा'को शासनमा इन्द्रियलाई राख्नुपर्ने हिन्दू मत अनुकुल रहेको छ ।

(घ) हिन्दू संस्कृतिमा रहेको आध्यात्मिक चेतनाको प्रभाव गैर-शाब्दिक सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणामा पनि परेको छ । तर यो भौतिक जगत्बाट निरपेक्ष भने रहेको छैन । वास्तवमा भौतिक एवम् आध्यात्मिक दुवै सत्यको सुसंयोजन गर्ने हिन्दूत्वको विशेषताको प्रत्यक्ष प्रभाव गैर-शाब्दिक हिन्दू-सञ्चार-अवधारणाका सन्दर्भमा पनि परेको छ ।

शाब्दिक सञ्चारः

(क) हिन्दूसंस्कृतिमा शब्दको महिमा खुब गाइएको छ । प्राचीन हिन्दूहरू शब्दको दुवै स्वरूप -लेखात्मक र भाषात्मक) बारेमा विज्ञ थिए । भाषिक प्रतीक आफ्नो मूल प्रकृतिमा ध्वनिपरक हुन्छ भन्ने आधुनिक भाषाविज्ञानको मान्यता अनुकूल प्राचीन कालदेखिनै हिन्दू अवधारणामा शब्दलाई 'श्रोत्रेन्द्रियग्राह्य' मानिएको पाइन्छ ।

(ख) विभिन्न साक्ष्यहरूबाट 'वैदिक' कालमा लेखन-कलाको प्रशस्त प्रचार रहेको देखिन्छ ।

(ग) हिन्दू परम्परामा भाषाका चार रूप मानिएका छन्( परा, पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा र वैखरी । पहिलेका तीन अवस्थाका शब्द गुप्त अव्यक्त छन्, चौथो अवस्थाको व्यक्तशब्दलाई नै मनुष्यहरूको बोलीले प्रकाश गर्दछ भनी वेदवाक्यले निरूपण गरेको छ । वाक्यपदीयमा त्यही वैदिक मत प्रतिबिम्बित भएको छ । वैखरी शब्दको बाह्य र खुट्ट्याउन सकिने रूप अवस्था हो, जहाँ वाक्लाई वक्ताले उच्चारण गर्दछ र श्रोताले श्रवण गर्दछ । प्राण अथवा श्वासले वागेन्द्रिय तथा श्रवणेन्द्रियलाई ध्वनिको क्रमबद्ध उत्पादन तथा ग्रहण गर्न सक्षम तुल्याउँछ । प्राण अथवा श्वास नै वैखरी वाक्को कारण हो । यसभन्दा आन्तरिक तहमा जाँदा मध्यमा वाक् चाहिं मुख्यतया बुद्धिसँग सम्बद्ध छ । कुनै कुरा बोलिनुअघि वक्ताले दिमागमा सोचेको कुरा वा कुनै कुरा सुनिसकेपछि श्रोताले आफ्नो मनमा मनन गरेको कुरालाई मध्यमा वाक्को उदाहरणका रूपमा लिन सकिन्छ । यस अवस्थामा शब्द र अर्थको सम्बन्ध व्यक्तिलाई ज्ञात भइसकेको हुन्छ तापनि तिनको पृथक् पृथक् अस्तित्व पनि रहेकै हुन्छ । अझ आभ्यन्तरिक तहको पश्यन्ती अवस्थामा चाहिं शब्द र अर्थको पृथक् पृथक् अस्तित्व हुँदैन; यी दुई एकाकार भइसकेका हुन्छन् । यो तह अन्तर्ज्ञर्ााो हो र यहाँ अनुभूतिले नै ज्ञान हुन्छ । योभन्दा परको 'परा' अवस्थामा नपुगी 'शब्दब्रह्म' साक्षात्कार हुँदैन भन्ने वैदिक मत रहेको छ ।

(घ) जीवन र जगत्को अन्तिम लक्ष्य ब्रह्म नै हो भन्ने सिद्धान्तको प्रतिपादन वैयाकरणको दृष्टिबाट वाक्यपदीयमा भएको छ र यो आस्तिक हिन्दू दर्शनहरूसँग मतैक्यता राख्ने दृष्टिकोण हो ।
(ङ) आधुनिक विद्वान भाषाको दुई रूप लांग र परोल अर्थात् मध्यमा र वैखरीमै रोकिए, भारतवषर्ीय मनीषी दुई तह अझ अघि बढेका छन्, परा र पश्यन्तीसम्म । पश्चिमा दर्शन मूलतः भौतिकवादी भएकाले बढी भन्दा बढी यसमा मानसिक तह (अर्धचेतन तथा अवचेतन मन) सम्ममात्र यसको दृष्टि पुगेको छ । हिन्दू धारणामा भौतिक स्वरूपलाईमात्र सम्पूर्णा नमानी त्यसभित्रको परमतत्वलाई पनि चिन्ने प्रयास गरिने प्रवृत्ति अनुरूप भौतिक र मानसिक तहलाई समेट्दै अझ उच्चतम् तह अर्थात् आध्यात्मिकतासम्म पुगेको देखिन्छ । हिन्दू संस्कृतिमा रहेको आध्यात्मिक चेतनाको प्रभाव शाब्दिक सञ्चारको हिन्दू अवधारणामा प्रत्यक्षतः एवम् निर्ण्ाायक तवरले परेको छ । तर यो भौतिक जगत्बाट निरपेक्ष भने रहेको छैन । जहाँ पश्चिमा अवधारणा भौतिक सत्यप्रतिको अत्यधिक आग्रहले एकाङ्गी बनेको छ; शाब्दिक हिन्दू-सञ्चार-अवधारणाको निर्माण भौतिक एवम् आध्यात्मिक दुवै सत्यको सुसंयोजन भएर नै भएको छ ।


(क) भारतवर्षीय- वा हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तको विकास प्राचीनकालमा कहिले भयो भन्ने तथ्य अस्पष्ट छ । हिन्दू-सञ्चार-सिद्धान्तका रूपमा निरूपित 'साधारणीकरण'को निमित्त दशौं शताब्दीका काव्याशास्त्राचार्य भट्टनायकलाई जस दिने मूल प्रवृत्तिका साथै सिद्धान्तलाई वैदिककालसम्म नै तन्काउने प्रयत्न पनि भएका छन् ।

(ख) भट्टनायकले मानव-मानव बीचमा सन्देशको आदान-प्रदानको मुख्य उद्देश्य आपसमा भावको साझेदारी वा साझा अनुभूति नै हो भन्ने मानेर त्यस प्रक्रियालाई 'साधारणीकरण'को रूपमा व्याख्या गरेका हुन् । पश्चिमा सन्दर्भमा 'कम्युनिकेसन' शब्दको व्युत्पत्ति हर्ेदा कम्युनिकेसन -सञ्चार) भनेको कुनै कुराको साझेदारी गर्ने प्रक्रिया हो भन्ने बुझिन्छ । तर्सथ पश्चिममा कम्युनिकेसन भनेर र पूर्वमा साधारणीकरण भनेर एकै प्रक्रियालाई बुझाउन खोजिएको देखिन्छ ।

(ग) साधारणीकरणका निम्नानुसारका तत्वहरू रहेका छन्- सहृदय (प्रेषक र प्रापक), भाव, अभिव्यञ्जन, सन्देश, सरणि, रसास्वादन, सम्भाव्य दोष, सन्दर्भ, प्रतिक्रिया ।

(घ) भारतवर्षीय काव्यशास्त्रको आधारमा निरूपित सिद्धान्त पनि हिन्दू अवधारणाका आधारभूत विशेषताबाट निरपेक्ष छैन । जसरी हिन्दूत्वले आधिभौतिक, आधिदैविक एवं आध्यात्मिक सबै तहलाई समेट्दछ, उसरी नै साधारणीकरणको क्षेत्र पनि विस्तृत रहेको छ ।

(ङ) जटिल प्रक्रियाको सरल परिणति हुनु नै साधारणीकरणको विशेषता हो ।
तुलनात्मक अध्ययनः

(क) इश्वरलाई अतिशय प्रेम गर्ने हुनाले एक आदर्श हिन्दू सारा जगत्लाईर् इश्वरकै अभिव्यक्तिको रूपमा प्रेम गर्दछ । तर्सथ हिन्दू जीवनपद्धतिमा मानवका अलावा मानवेतर सम्पूर्णा प्रकृतिप्रति समेत प्रेमपूर्ण दृष्टिकोण छ र त्यसको प्रभाव सञ्चार व्यवहारमा समेत परेको छ ।
(ख) हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक सञ्चार प्रक्रिया चक्रवत् रहेको छ, जहाँ पश्चिमा अवधारणामा त्यसलाई रेखीय मानिएको छ ।

(ग) अरस्तेली ढाँचामा सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको उद्देश्य नै प्रापकलाई प्रेषकले अभ्रि्रेरित गर्नु रहेकाले पश्चिमा अवधारणामा प्रेषकलाई महत्व दिइएको स्वतः स्पष्ट छ । यता हिन्दू पर्रि्रेक्षमा प्रेषक-प्राधान्यता वा प्रापक-केन्द्रियता परिस्थितिजन्य अवस्थामात्र हुन् । यस्तो पृष्ठभूमिमा एउटालाई मात्र प्रमुखता दिनु वस्तुनिष्ठ हुनेछैन । तर्सथ लौकिक वा भौतिक जगत्को सन्दर्भमा भन्ने हो भने पूर्वमा सम्बद्धता र अन्तरनिर्भरतालाई महत्व दिइन्छ भने साधारणीकरणलाई आध्यात्मिक सन्दर्भमा समेत हर्ेदा ब्रह्म र जीवात्माबीचको साधारणीकरणलाई 'अन्तरनिर्भर' भन्नु उपयुक्त हुनेछैन । लौकिक वा भौतिकदेखि आध्यात्मिकसम्म सबै सन्दर्भलाई प्रतिनिधित्व गर्ने गरी भन्ने हो भने सहभागीहरूको आपसी सम्बन्धलाई बुझाउने प्राविधिक संज्ञा 'सहृदय' नै भन्नुपर्ने हुन्छ ।

हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक सञ्चारमा सम्बन्ध स्वयम्लाई महत्व दिने वा सम्बन्धको हेतुलाई ख्याल राख्ने भन्ने कुरा परिस्थिति-सापेक्ष हुनजान्छ । हिन्दूहरूले आवश्यकता अनुरूप सम्बन्ध वा सम्बन्धको हेतुमध्ये कुनै एक वा दुवैको सुसंयोजनलाई महत्व दिने गर्दछन् । तर्सथ हिन्दू अवधारणा पूर्णाङ्गी छभने उता पश्चिमा अवधारणामा चाहिं सम्बन्धको हेतुलाई मात्र ख्याल राखिने भएकाले त्यो एकाङ्गी छ ।

(घ) लौकिक वा भौतिक सन्दर्भमा हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक सञ्चार प्रक्रियाको उद्देश्य यसको आदर्शस्थितिमा भावहरूको साझेदारी, पारस्परिक समझदारी, सहमति एवं सामुहिक क्रियान्विति हो । साधारणीकरणको आदर्श उद्देश्य सहृदयहरूबीचमा साझेदारी, समभाव वा ऐक्यता हासिल गर्नु हो । उच्चतर रूपमा यसको उद्देश्य आत्मज्ञान पाई मोक्षको परम लक्ष्य हासिल गर्नु नै हो । उता पश्चिमा अवधारणामा सञ्चारको उद्देश्य उद्देश्य अभ्रि्रेरणा वा प्रापकलाई प्रेषकले अभ्रि्रेरित गर्नु रहेको छ ।

पश्चिमा संस्कृतिमा झैं इहलौकिक प्राप्तिमा मात्र कुनैपनि आदर्श हिन्दूले सन्तोष मान्दैन; तर हिन्दू दर्शनलाई भौतिक वा लौकिक जीवनप्रति अनिच्छुक र पारलौकिक वा आध्यात्मिक जीवनप्रति मात्र आकषिर्त रहेको ठान्नु चाहिं अर्को अपाङ्ग सोच हो । धर्म, अर्थ र कामलाई सदुपयोग गरी मोक्षसम्म पुग्नु हिन्दूत्वको अभीष्ट हो । यो कुरा अवश्यै होकि यदि अर्थ र काम धर्म-प्रतिकूल भएमा त्यसलाई त्याग्न तत्पर रहनुपर्दछ । संक्षेपमा भन्नुपर्दा धर्म, अर्थ, काम, मोक्ष अर्थात् पुरुषार्थ-चतुष्टयको प्राप्ति नै एक आदर्श हिन्दूको जीवन-उद्देश्य हो । त्यसैले सञ्चार क्रियाकलापलाई यी सबै सन्दर्भमा नहेरी हिन्दू अवधारणाको पूर्ण स्वरूप प्राप्त हुँदैन ।

(ङ) हिन्दू अवधारणात्मक सञ्चारलाई 'सन्दर्भ-सापेक्ष' मान्नुपर्ने हुन्छ, जबकि अरस्तेली सञ्चार-अवधारणामा 'सन्दर्भ-निरपेक्ष' रहेको छ ।

(च) सामाजिक व्यवहारमा हिन्दू संस्कृति समष्टि-प्रधान रहेको छभने आध्यात्मिक प्रयोजनमा यो सदैव व्यष्टि-केन्द्रित रहेर चिन्तन गर्दछ । यसरी वैयक्तिकता र सामुहिकताको समन्वित रूप नै हिन्दूत्वमा रहेको हुन्छ । तर्सथ व्यष्टि र समष्टि दुवैको सुसंयोजन हिन्दू अवधारणाको विशेषता हो । उता पश्चिमा सिद्धान्त व्यष्टि-प्रधान वा व्यक्तिवादी रहेको छ ।

(छ) हिन्दू अवधारणामा सञ्चारको आभ्यन्तरिक पक्ष -अन्तर्ज्ञान लाई जोड दिइएको छ भने पश्चिमा अवधारणामा बाह्य पक्ष (इन्द्रियजन्य ज्ञान) लाई जोड दिइएको छ । जसको फलस्वरूप भारतवर्षा अन्तरनिहित वा आन्तरिक सञ्चार तथा पश्चिममा आमसञ्चारलाई जोड दिइएको पाइन्छ । प्रायः सबै आमसञ्चारका प्रविधि पश्चिममै आविष्कार गरिनु र अर्कोतर्फअन्तर्ज्ञनको साधन अर्थात् 'योग'को विकास चाहिं भारतवर्षा जति भयो, त्यो तहसम्म पश्चिम कहिल्यै नपुग्नुको कारण पनि यही हो ।