Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Nepalese Media System and Journalism (JMC. 515)

Tribhuvan University
Master Level/II Year/ Humanities Full Marks: 100
Nepalese Media System and Journalism (JMC. 515)
Group "A"

(Long- answer Questions
1. Describe the national and international conditions in which print , audio and audio–visual media have emerged in Nepal.
2. What are the objectives of National Communication Policy, 2049 B.S. ? Why policy interventions does it make achieve these objectives?
3. Give a brief account of media regulation system in Nepal. How do you evaluate the implementation aspects of Nepalese media regulations?
4. "Nepal has made big achievements in community radio broadcasting." Do you agree?

Group "B"
5. How do production houses and broadcasting stations differ from each other?
6. What are the different kinds of broadcasting services functioning in Nepal?
7. What is the role of private sector in the development of films in Nepal?
8. Explain the present status of Right to Information in Nepal.
9. Assess the relevance of the long-term Communication Policy, 2059B.S.
10. Why has foreign investment in media been a topical issue in Nepal?

Sunday, March 29, 2009

Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)

Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Attempt any THREE questions from Group 'A' and FOUR from group 'B'
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions

1. Critically examine the role of news contents in the Nepalese broadcast
2. How do you assess the growth of daily newspapers in Nepal?
3. Discuss the principles of media pluralism.
4. Evaluate the code of conduct developed by Press Council (Nepal) for
Group B (4x7.5=30 ) Short Answer Questions

5. What are the key principles of journalism?
6. How far have the Nepalese media been able to reach the people? Give
7. Explain the role of newsreels.
8. Discuss the impact of documentary films as an information channel.
9. Examine the functioning of alternative media.
10. Write short notes on any TWO.
a. Vertical ownership b. Documentary films c. Press associations
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions
1. Discuss the role of news media in democratic participation of people.
2. Examine the financial investment climate for media houses in Nepal after
3. How do you assess the application of the basic principles of journalism
in the Nepalese media?
4. Why is radio the most relevant media for Nepal?
Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions

5. Explain media values in principle and practice.
6. What are the main stages of journalism's growth in Nepal?
7. Discuss the impact of media on society.
8. How does media contribute to informing the public accuracy and fairly?
9. Examine the practice of development journalism in Nepal, with emphasis on
illustrations and graphics.
10. Write short notes on any Two:
a. Cross-ownership b. Gate-keepers c. Newsreels.
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions
1. Discuss the factors that led to the late arrival of journalism in Nepal.
2. What are the main theories of modern journalism?
3. How has the restoration of multi-party democracy affected the growth and
development of various news media in Nepal?
4. How do you assess the application of 'ABC of journalism' in the Nepalese
Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions

5. Discuss the various stages of development of journalism in the world with
special reference to Nepal.
6. What is development journalism?
7. Why is monopoly in media against the spirit of democracy? Give examples.
8. List and elaborate the various broadcast media and their presence in
9. Examine the use and abuse of illustrations in news magazines.
10. Write short notes on any two:
a. Documentary Films. b. New sells in Nepal. c. Gate-keeping.
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)*
Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions

1. Discuss media freedom, with special focus on licentiousness versus social
2. How do you take the good ethical decisions? Describe in the light of
ethical principles of journalism.
3. What is the dilemma of objectivity and subjectivity in journalism?
4. Why the use of photographs, graphics and other illustrative materials is
given priority in a magazine?
Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions

5. Media watch mechanism in Nepal.
6. Inclusiveness in media functioning and service.
7. What is gate-keeping and how it works in media?
8. Community and commercial radio.
9. Describe various types of lenses and their uses.
10. What is journalistic fairness?

Sunday, March 8, 2009

Media-imperialism Versus cultural identity

If we ask question that do the mass media produce direct, immediate and powerful influences on the audiences, then a simple yes or no answer is not possible. Sometimes the media seem powerful and sometimes not. We can see that an international 'media culture' has come to stay in which certain languages, cultures and types of story have come to find wide influences in all over the world. The mass media play a crucial role in almost all aspects of daily life in these days. The sociological significance of media extends beyond the content of media messages. Their influence is not limited to what we know. People learn and internalize some values, beliefs and norms presented in the media products. Media also affect how we learn about our world and interact with one another. They provide a diversion, a source of conflict, or a unifying force. Such impact is almost obvious when we look at the ways in which the mass media mediate our relationships.

In contemporary society, it is media that most often act as the bridge between people of different origins. The media can serve as an entertainer, informer, and also as a way to transmit values or norms. The relationship between society and the media is more complex than a simple 'free flow of information' slogan might suggest. The process of 'mass communication' is not synonymous with the 'mass media', the organized technologies that make mass communication possible. The 'mass communication' remains as an abstract concept while 'mass media' has acquired a status of reality. Globalization in the field of media is not just about the technological innovations used to communicate over long distances. In addition, and perhaps more important, it also refers to the exchange and intermingling of cultures from different parts of the world. In reality, this process is quite unidirectional. Some scholars claim that the export of American and Western popular culture is latter-day imperialism.

Though there are likely to be large differences, for instance, between media those adopt or are given a significant social, cultural or political task and those that are primarily concerned with making profits. But, both types of mass media have common characteristic in the sense that they contribute in the cultural intrusion. It is a fact that most of the media have a vested interest in the Capitalist system and are inclined to give support to its most obvious defenders. The so-called Third world countries are pawns of the western-based global media and the media are like the 19th -century European colonial powers. Some people argue that Rock music encouraged youngsters to use drugs or engage in sexual behavior.

The communication flow is one way from the powerful nations to the weak ones. The result is that Western values are imposed in an impossible-to-resist way. Scholar Herbert Schiller's view is that the Western-controlled international mass media preempt native culture, a situation he sees as robbery, just like earlier colonial tapping of natural resources to enrich the home countries. 'Influence on people' is not only the final stage in the process of mass communication but also the bottom line of public concern. It is for this reason that people are worried about the effect of western mass media influence.

Communication and culture are so closely bound together that virtually all communication engaged in by humans is culturally linked. In respect of culture, according to Dennis McQuail, the mass media constitute a primary source of definitions and images of social reality and the most ubiquitous expression of shared identity. Also, they are the largest focus of leisure time interest, providing the shared 'cultural environment' for most people and more so than any other single institution. The most fundamental questions of society- those concerning the distribution and exercise of power, the management of problems and the process of integration and change- all turn on the communication. So the one way flow of communication is dangerous. It must be changed as soon as possible. Since nothing has influenced the lives of modern human society as the mass media have, we should be much more serious about it.

The consequence of media globalization should be understood properly. We should not hesitate to accept the good aspects of media influence. We know that the media often play a significant role in the adoption of new technologies and the way they are used. Media play role in diffusion of innovations. The media also change our images and interpretations. They can also change our feelings about social issue and help in decision-making. It may tell the truth so that people would have the information that they need to be sovereign. Also, there is chance of manipulation and media-imperialism. But cultural invasion in the name of globalization and modernization cannot be acceptable. Promoting conditions for the preservation of the cultural identity of every society is necessary to enable it to enjoy a harmonious inter-relationship. There should be established national cultural policies, which should foster cultural identity and creativity, and involve the media in these tasks. Such policies should also contain guidelines for safeguarding national cultural development while promoting knowledge of other cultures.

- Nirmala Mani Adhikary

Saturday, February 14, 2009

International and Inter-Cultural Communication and Media (Compulsory) JMC 506

Unit I
Culture of the world and Nations' communication system: Nature and scope of the study of International as well as intercultural communication and their relevancy as a discipline to the study of journalism and mass communication.

"...Through contact between different cultures via travel and trade, as well as war and colonialism. Such interactions have resulted in the transporting and implanting of ideas, religious beliefs, languages and economic and political systems, from one part of the world to another, by a variety of means that have evolved over millennia-from the oral, to being mediated by written language, sound or image.... International communication, then, is about sharing knowledge, ideas and beliefs among the various peoples of the world, and therefore it can be contributing factor in resolving global conflict and promoting mutual understanding among nations. However, more often channels of international communication have been used not for such lofty ideas but to promote the economic and political interests of the world's powerful nations, who control the means of global communication." (Thussu 3)

Communication is always caught up in cultural rules. Whenever an individual tries to communicate with another person, both of them share varying degrees of rules. The more rules they share, the easier the communication becomes. (Beatty & Takahashi, 2003, p. 25)

The communication act has been defined as having several parts (sender, message, channel, medium, context, and receiver). In human communication the matter is complicated by the fact that the entire act takes places in a cultural matrix. Senders and receivers, for example, are not just people, but specific people with various roles and statuses. These roles and statuses affect the ways in which messages can be and are interpreted.

'Intercultural communication is the exchange of cultural information between two groups of people with significantly different cultures…In other words, intercultural communication should focus on the exchange of information among two or more cultural systems embedded within a common environment that results in the reduction of uncertainty about the future behavior of the other system through an increase in understanding of the other social group.' ( Gudykunst & Mody 276)

Intercultural communication generally involves face-to-face communication between people from different national cultures. One major area of research is cross-cultural communication (i.e., the comparison of face-to-face communication across cultures; for example, comparing speech convergence in initial interactions in Japan and the United States).
Demands for intercultural communication skills are increasing as more and more businesses go global or international. People realize that there are barriers and limitations when entering a foreign territory. Without the help of intercultural communication one can unknowingly cause confusion and misunderstandings. For these intercultural businesses to breach the cultural barriers encountered when stepping into foreign grounds it is vital to fully understand the cultural differences that exist so as to prevent damaging business relations due to intercultural communication gaps.
There are many theories that set principles to help interpret the basis of intercultural communication. These theories help to iron out possible ripples of misunderstanding by giving a basic guideline on how to address situations. These guidelines help prevent clashes between different cultures groups caused by misperceptions.
The basic skills of intercultural communication are fundamentally general communication skills that can be used universally by all cultures and races. These skills are simply tweaked in a direction that takes the cultural limitation into consideration. An example of such communication skills in the intercultural environment is to listen without judging, repeat what you understand, confirm meanings, give suggestions and acknowledge a mutual understanding.
The main purpose of following such theories is to earn respect from others. Respect in all cultures in the world is a common language and by earning it through respecting other peoples culture and religion; the favor is returned.

International Communication includes the study of how communication between nation-states has been studied over the past 70 years (since 1930s).

International communication researchers studied how states used media to win on the world's battlefields. By the end of World War II, U.S. firms were expanding domestically and internationally.

Nature and scope of the study of International communication:

Unlike ICC, INC deals with the more macro-level information exchange between the nations." International communication (INC) is the study of heterophilous mass-mediated communication between two or more countries with differing backgrounds. The communicating countries may differ ideologically, culturally, in level of economic development, and in language. The primary unit of analysis in INC is the interaction of two or more societies/nations that are linked by mass media communication. So INC takes place at the societal level, as opposed to the interpersonal level, which distinguishes it from ICC. INC is a type of mass-mediated communication (i.e., few-to-many communication mediated by technologies such as radio, television and computer networks).

"Defined as 'communication that occurs across international borders' the analysis of international communication has been traditionally concerned with government-to-government information exchanges, in which a few powerful states dictated the communication agenda. Advances in communication and information technologies in the late twentieth century have greatly enhanced the scope of international communication-going beyond government-to-government and including business-to-business and people-to-people interactions at a global level and at speeds unimaginable even a decade ago.

Apart from nation-states, many non-state international actors are increasingly shaping international communication. The growing global importance of international non-governmental bodies-Public Interest Organization (PINGOs), such as Amnesty International, Greenpeace and the International Olympic Committee; Business Interest Organizations (BINGOs), such as GE, News Corporation and AT&T, and International Organizations (IGOs), such as the European Union, NATO, ASEAN-is indicative of this trend."(Thussu 1-2)

"International communication, then, is about sharing knowledge, ideas and beliefs among the various people of the world, and therefore it can be a contributing factor in resolving global conflict and promoting mutual understanding among nations. However, more often channels of international communication have been used not for such lofty ideals but to promote the economic and political interests of the world's powerful nations, who control the means of global communication." (Thussu 3-4)

International communication stimulated by WAR, TRADE, IMPERIALISM & INDUSTRIAL EXPANSION:

The rise of the global news agencies of the 20th century was made possible by technology (telegraph and radio-telephony) and stimulated by war, trade, imperialism and industrial expansion. (Mc Quail 219).

Example, how WAR stimulated international communication:

In 1896 William Randolph Hearst, a prominent newspaper publisher sent a photographer to Cuba to cover the possible outbreak of war against Spain. Historian Luther Mott reported that the cameraman replied with this telegram:

The publisher's reply was quick and to the point:

TECHNOLOGY (TV) paved the way for International communication:

Technology has certainly given a powerful push to the globalization of television. The arrival of television satellites in the late 1970s broke the principle of national sovereignty of broadcasting space and made it difficult and ultimately impossible to offer effective resistance to television transmission from outside the national territory.

The national character of early mass media was reinforced by the exclusiveness of language as well as by cultural and political factors.

Multinational Media OWNERSHIP & internationalization:

The foremost example of internationalization of media ownership, production and distribution is that of the popular music industry.

Examples of INTERNATIONL communication through MASS MEDIA, presented by Mc Quail (220):

• Direct transmission or distribution of media channels or complete publications from one country to audiences in other countries. This covers foreign sales of newspapers (sometimes in special editions) and books, certain satellite television channels, officially sponsored international radio broadcast services;
• Certain specifically international media, such as MTV Europe, CNN International, BBC World, TV Cinq, etc;
• Content items of many kinds (films, music, TV programmes, journalistic items, etc.) that are imported to make up part of domestic media output;
• Formats and genres of foreign origin that are adapted or remade to suit domestic audiences;
• International news items, whether about a foreign country or made in a foreign country, that appear in domestic media;
• Miscellaneous content such as sporting events, advertising and pictures that have a foreign reference or origin.

SCOPE of the study of International communication:

Studies of the mass system of a single nation and comparative studies of different mass media systems were precursors to the study of INC; however, the focus of INC, especially in the early decades of study, was often on the flows of information between and among nations. (Gudykunst & Mody 5)

CONSEQUENCE of International communication:

INC across borders may pose threats to national sovereignty and may represent media imperialism, the process through which one nation's culture is imposed on another country through mass media channels. (Gudykunst & Mody 5) Most of the issues surrounding global mass communication have a direct or indirect connection with the thesis of 'cultural imperialism', or the more limited notion of 'media imperialism'. Both concepts imply a deliberate attempt to dominate, invade or subvert the 'cultural space' of others and suggest a degree of coercion in the relationship. (Mc Quail 221)


Baran J. Stanley & Dennis K. Davis. Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, Ferment, and Future. Australia: Thomson Wadsworth, 2000.

Gudykunst, William B. & Bella Mody. Handbook of International and Cultural Communication. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication 2002.

Thussu, Daya Kishan. International Communication: Continuity and Change. London: Arnold, 2000.

McQuail, Denis. McQuail's Mass Communication Theory. London: Sage Publication, 2000.

Sunday, January 11, 2009

Printing Technology in Nepal prior to 1990

विश्वमा लेखनकलाको विकासबारेमा विभिन्न अन्वेषक तथा विद्वानहरुका फरक फरक मतहरू रहेका छन् । पूर्वीय सिद्धान्त अनुसार भन्नु पर्दा वैदिक वाङमयका ग्रन्थ, जस्तै : शतपथ ब्राहृमण, ऐतरेय आरण्यक र छांदोग्योपनिषदमा लिपिकला यानेकि लेखनकलाको प्रमाण पाइन्छ । यी संसारका र्सवप्राचीन ग्रन्थहरू हुन् । प्राचीन भारतवर्षमा धातु तथा काठबाट तयार पारिएका विभिन्न छापको मद्दतबाट छपाइ कार्य गरिन्थ्यो । कम्तीमापनि महाभारतकालमा (आजभन्दा करीब ५/७ हजार वर्षपहिलेनै) यस्ता छापको प्रयोग गरिएको थियो । भारतवर्षमा छाप-मुद्रणपद्धतिको प्रयोग रामायणकालमै पनि हुन्थ्यो भन्ने कतिपय विद्वानहरूको भनाइ रहेको छ । 'वाशिष्ठ धर्मसूत्र' नामक ग्रन्थमा यो कुराको स्पष्ट प्रमाण छ कि वैदिक कालमा लेखनकलाको प्रशस्त प्रचार थियो ।
पश्चिमा सिद्धान्त अनुसार मानिसले पहिले लेख्न जान्दैनथे र करिब ३५ हजार वर्षघि र्सवप्रथम मानिसले गुफाका भित्ता वा रुखका बोक्रातिर र्सवप्रथम केही किर्मिरे चित्रहरू कोरेको थियो रे । तर ती लेखाइहरू अस्पष्ट भएको एवम् आजका दिनमा मानिसले कुनै अर्थ खुट्ट्याउने नसक्ने खालका रहेको थियो भनिन्छ । अर्थपूर्ण सन्देश दिनेगरी चित्रात्मक लेखनको विकास भने इजिप्टका निवासीहरूले इ.पू. ५ हजार देखि इ.पू. ४ हजारको बीच कुनै समयमा गरेका थिए भन्ने मानिन्छ । प्राचीन सुमेरियालीहरूले ३०००-१७०० इ.पू.मा माटाका चक्काहरूमा लेख्ने कलाको विकास गरे । यसरी अध्ययन गर्दै जाँदा प्राचीन भारतवर्षा निवासी आर्यहरूले लेखनकलाको विकास इजिप्टनिवासी तथा सुमेरियालीहरू भन्दापनि अगावै गरेका थिए भन्ने देखिन्छ ।
लेखनकलाको विकास भएपछि हातैले लेखेर पुस्तकहरू तयार पार्न थालियो । लेखनकलाको विकास भएपछि प्रारम्भमा लेखिएका कुरा मुख्य रुपमा धर्मग्रन्थ नै थिए । धर्मग्रन्थ पछि साहित्यिक रचनाहरू लेखिए । समाचारको लेखन धर्म, साहित्य, स्वास्थ्य बारेमा लेख्न थालिएको निक्कै पछिमात्र सुरु भएको हो । इ.पू. ६९ मा रोमन सम्राट जुलियस सिजरको आदेशमा रोमन सैनिकहरूले युद्धमा हासिल गरेका उपलब्धिको दैनिक विवरण लेखी ठाउँ-ठाउँमा टाँसिने गरेको थियो । त्यसलाई 'एक्टा डिउर्ना' भनिन्थ्यो, यही 'एक्टा डिउर्ना'लाई अखबारको प्रारम्भिक स्वरूप मानिएको छ । त्यसो त, चीनमा छैटौं शताब्दीमा 'त्सिङ्गपाओ' नामको पत्रिका निक्लेको र सन् ६१८-९०५ मा 'पेकिङ्ग गजेट' प्रकाशित भएको पाइन्छ । त्यसताका सबै जसो प्रकाशनका काम काठे-ब्लकको प्रयोग गरेर भएका थिए । सुरु सुरुमा जापानी तथा चीनियाहरूले काठे-ब्लकको प्रयोग गरी अक्षर छाप्ने गर्दथे त्यसैलाई पछ्याउँदै यो प्रविधिको विस्तार भएको हो भन्ने इतिहासकारहरूको ठम्याई रहेको छ । चीनमा सन् १७५ मा यस्तै काठे ब्लकका छापबाट मुद्रण गरिएका ग्रन्थका केही भाग अद्यावधि प्राप्य छन् भनिन्छ । सन् ८६८ मा चीनका शासक वाङचिहले आफ्ना परिवारका सम्झनामा प्रकाशित गरेको पुस्तकलाई संसारको प्रथम मुद्रित पुस्तक मानिन्छ । सन् ९७२ मा त्यही छाप-मुद्रणपद्धतिको प्रयोग गरी एकलाख तीस हजार पृष्ठको त्रिपिटक ग्रन्थसमेत छापिएको थियो । अनेक वर्षलगाएर फरक फरक दशक अनि शताब्दीका मानिसहरूको प्रयासले विकास र विस्तार हुँदै आएको मुद्रण प्रविधिमा नयाँ युगको सुरुवात जोन गुटेनवर्गद्वारा आधुनिक मुद्रणयन्त्रको विकास र स्थापनासँगै भयो । उनले काठका अक्षरहरू प्रयोग गरेका थिए । गुटेनवर्गकै प्रेरणाले पिटरले धातुमा अक्षरलाई ढाले । यसले गर्दा मसि परेर काठको अक्षर बिग्रने र छाप्दा काठ फुटेर टंकण प्रक्रिया नै अवरुद्ध हुने समस्या समाधान भएर गयो । सन् १४६६ मा फ्रान्समा, सन् १४७७ मा बेलायतमा, सन् १५५० मा पोर्चुगलमा र सन् १५५० मा भारतमा यसको विकास सुरु भयो । सोह्रौं शताब्दीमा आएर युरोपमा मुद्रण प्रविधिमा व्यापक विकास हुन थाल्यो ।
नेपालमा भने,
नेपाली भाषाको विकास विक्रमको एघारौं शताब्दीमा जुम्लाको सिंजा प्रदेशबाट भएपछि नेपाली भाषामा लेखनको सुरुवात भएको हो । सन् ९८१ (विक्रम संवत १०३८)को दामुपालको दुल्लु अभिलेख हालसम्म प्राप्त पहिलो नेपाली भाषाको लेख्य तथ्य हो । यसरी शिलालेख, ताम्रपत्र, भोजपत्र, ताडपत्रमा नेपाली भाषाको लेखनक सुरु भएपछि राजा महाराजाहरुले आफूले गरेको दानपुण्यको काम र सैनिक सँग सम्बन्धित विषयमा यस्ता शिलालेख तथा ताम्रपत्रमा कुँदेर मन्दिर, पाटी पौवा जस्ता र्सार्वजनिक स्थलमा राख्ने गर्दथे । त्यसपछिमात्र धार्मिक, साहित्यिक तथा स्वास्थ्य सम्बन्धि पुस्तकहरु पनि लेख्न सुरु भएका हुन् । लेखनको क्रम चल्दै जाँदा मुद्रणको प्रयोग पनि यहाँ भएको बताइन्छ । शिला तथा तामाका पाताहरुमा लेख्ने र बुट्टा कुँद्ने क्रममा त्यसलाई रुखका रेसाबाट तयार गरिएका कागजहरुमा विभिन्न रंग पोतेर उतार्ने कामहरु भएका थिए भनिन्छ । जङ्गबहादुर राणाले बेलायतबाट आधुनिक छापाखाना (प्रेस) ल्याउनु अगाडि ढुङ्गेछापाको प्रचलन रहेको बताइन्छ । जंगबहादुरले ल्याएको प्रेसबाट मुद्रण सुरु हुनुभन्दा अगाडिको नेपालको रैथाने ढुङ्गे छापाको प्रविधिलाई नेपालमा छापाको प्रयोगको प्राथमिक रुप मान्न सकिन्छ ।

जंगबहादुर राणाले बेलायतबाट सन् १८५१ -वि.सं.१९०८)मा ल्याएको 'भी. एण्ड जे. फिज्जिक्स मेकर्स' लेखिएको छापामेसिनको अगाडी पट्टि एउटा ठूलो गिद्धको आकार थियो त्यसैको कारण त्यसलाई गिद्धे प्रेस भनियो । भारतको बैंगलोरमा विश्वेश्वरैयाको नाममा रहेको औद्योगिक संग्रहालयमा रहेको गोर्खापत्रको गिद्धेप्रेसकै मोहडा र आकार प्रकारको प्रेसमा राखिएको परिचयपत्रमा लेखिएको छ-''कोलम्बियन प्रिन्टिङ प्रेस उन्नीसौं शताब्दीको सबैभन्दा लोकप्रिय फलामे हाते छापाखाना थियो । फलाममा गडिएका बुट्टाहरुले गर्दा यो हेर्दा राम्रो हुनाका साथै काम गर्न पनि सजिलो थियो । यसको आविस्कार फिलाडेलिफयाका जर्ज क्ल्यामरले गरेका थिए । यसमा थोरै बल लगाउँदा धेरै काम गर्ने शक्ति प्रवद्धक लिभरहरु थिए, जसले गर्दा कोलम्बियन प्रेस अरु प्रसभन्दा निक्कै उच्चस्तरको थियो । यसमा प्रेसम्यानहरुलाई अरु प्रेसमा भन्दा कम धपेडी हुन्थ्यो । धेरै संख्यामा उत्पादन गरिएको यो पहिलो हाते प्रेस थियो ।'' नेपाली गिद्धे प्रेसको सही नाम हो कोलम्बियन प्रिन्टिङ प्रेस । यो हाते प्रेस हो । हाते प्रेसका आविष्कारक जर्मनीका गुटेनवर्गले सुरुमा अंगुर निचोर्ने हाते मेसिनलाई सुधारेर अक्षरमाथि मसी दलेर त्यसमाथि कागजको पाना राखेर माथिबाट च्यापेर सिसाका अक्षरको छाप कागजमा उतार्ने उपाय अपनाएर छापाखाना बनाएका थिए । यो हाते प्रेस त्यसैको सुधारिएको रुप हो । अत नेपालको पहिलो छापाखाना गिद्धेप्रेस गुटेनवर्ग प्रेसको दोस्रो रुप हो भन्न सकिन्छ ।
जंगबहादुरले ल्याएको हाते प्रविधिको भएका कारण यसमामा काठका केसहरूमा स-साना कोठा बनाएर त्यसमा सिसाका अक्षरहरूलाई हातले झिकेर पित्तलबाट बनेको सानो हाते स्टिकमा चाहेको लम्बाइमा पंक्तिबद्ध गरेर संयोजन मिलाएर कम्पोज गरि ती पंक्तिलाई दुई हातले समातेर काठ वा जस्ताले बनेको ग्यालीमा राखेर त्यसमा रबरको रोलरले मसी लगाएर माथिबाट कागज राखेर थिचेपछि छपाइ गर्ने गरिन्थ्यो । यो छापाखाना आउँदा सम्म बिजुलीको आविस्कार भइनसकेका कारण मानिसको बलमा नै यो सञ्चालन हुने गर्दथ्यो । यसमा हात वा खुट्टाले मेसिन चलाएर छाप्ने काम गरिन्थ्यो । वि.सं.१९६९ मा नेपालमा पहिलो पटक बिजुलीबाट चल्ने छापाखानाको स्थापना भयो । पहिलो विद्युतीय प्रेस आएको एक दश भित्र नै नेपालमा करिब पाँच दर्जन प्रेसहरु स्थापित भइसकेका थिए । मनोरञ्जन छापाखाना, नारायणहिटी छापाखाना, जंगी लिथोग्राफी, बुद्ध प्रेस, पाशुपत प्रेस लगायतका प्रेसहरु बिजुलीबाट सञ्चालित प्रेस थिए । यि प्रेसहरु पहिलो नेपाल भित्रिएको गिद्धेप्रेसकै दास्रो पुस्ता थिए भन्नुमा अत्युक्ति हुँदैन । यि छापामेसिन फ्ल्याट खालका थिए । नेपालमा बिजुलीको उत्पादन सुरु भएपछि यस्ता विद्युतिय छापाखानाको प्रयोग हुन थालेको हो । गोर्खापत्रको लागि पनि सरकारले विद्युतिय प्रेसको व्यवस्था गरेको थियो । फर्पिङबाट बिजुलीको उत्पादन सुरु भएपछि त फ्ल्याट मेसिनको प्रयोगमा झन् तीव्रता आयो । यसको प्रयोगले गर्दा छपाइमा चुस्तता त आयो नै पहिलाको भन्दा छपाइको गुणस्तरमा पनि सुधार आयो ।
२००७ साल सम्म धार्मिक, साहित्यिक खालका पुस्तक र पत्रपत्रिका प्रकाशन गर्ने हिसाबले निक्कै नीजि प्रेसहरुको स्थापना भएका थिए । २००७ मा प्रजातन्त्रको स्थापना भएपछि विभिन्न पत्रपत्रिकाहरु प्रकाशनमा आउनुमा यस्ता नीजि प्रेसहरुको महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका थियो । यी नै प्रेस स्थापनाको पृष्ठभूमिमा नै आवाज, समाज, जागरण लगायतका पत्रिकाहरु प्रकाशनमा आउन सफल भएका हुन् । तर पनि यी सबैको प्रकाशन पद्दती भने फ्याट प्रविधिको प्रेस नै हो । २००७ को प्रजातन्त्रले ल्याएको खुलापनका कारण पुस्तक, पत्रपत्रिका जति संख्यात्मक रुपमा प्रकाशनमा आए त्यसरी नै प्रेसको प्रविधिमा पनि सुधार देखिन थाल्यो । यस कालको छापाखानाको विकासको चर्चा गर्दा कमलमणि दीक्षितले आफ्नो वि.सं.२०१४ मा प्रकाशित पुस्तक 'यस्तो पनि' मा उनले लेखेका छन्-वषौं सम्म काम लिँदा पनि बिग्रन नमान्ने यो मेसिनबाट अचेल प्रुफ तान्ने इत्यादि मोटा काम लिइँदो रहेछ..... (पृ.२१) । यसले २०१३-१४ सम्म आउँदा पनि नेपालमा गिद्धेप्रेस छाप्नमा प्रयोग हुँदै आएको रहेछ भन्ने देखाउँछ जसले नेपालमा छापाखानाको पद्दतीमा खासै सुधार नआएको देखाउँछ ।
२०१७ सालमा राजा महेन्द्रले शासनसत्ता आफ्नो हातमा लिएपछि वाक् तथा प्रकाशन स्वतन्त्रता खुम्चन पुग्यो । फलस्वरुप पत्रिकाहरु प्रकाशन हुने र ती छापिने प्रेसहरु प्रकाशित सामग्रीको आधारमा छापाखाना जफत हुने र तीनको दर्ता समेत खारेज गर्ने नियमका कारण छापाखाना खुल्ने तथा नयाँ प्रविधि भित्रने कामहरु हुन सकेनन् । छापाखाना तथा प्रकाशन सम्बन्धि ऐन २०१९, ले छापाखानाको सञ्चालनमा कडाइ ल्याएपछि छापा प्रविधिमा नयाँ आगमन केही हुन सकेन । पञ्चायतकालमा पहिला खुलेका छापाखानाहरु त घिटिघिटि परेको अवस्थामा नयाँ खोल्ने कुरा पनि त भएन । जनक शिक्षा सामग्री केन्द्र, सूचना विभागको छापाखाना, साझा छापाखाना बाहेक अन्य छापाखानाहरु बल्ल तल्ल हाते प्रेसबाट उठेर बल्ल विद्युतिय छापाखानामा आएका थिए । त्यस अवस्थामा मोनो टाइपको प्रयोग बढि गरिन्थ्यो । मोनो कम्पोज विद्युतद्वारा संचालित मेसिनबाट तयार गरिन्छ । यसमा विशेषतः टाइपराइटरमा टाइप गरेझैं मोनो मेसिन चालकले पहिले टाइप गरिन्छ र विशेष कागजको रोलमा प्वाल प्वाल पारी त्यो रोल कागजलाई कास्टिङ मेसिनमा राखिन्छ । त्यसपछि विद्युतीय चापबाट सिसा पगालेर एक एक ओटा अक्षर कम्पोज हुन्छ । यो नै वास्तवमा मोनो कम्पोज हो । करिब छ जनाको काम एउटै मेसिनले दिने र काम सकिएपछि अक्षरहरू पगाल्न सकिने हुनाले मोनो टाइप मेसिन देवनागरी लिपिका निमित्त अत्यन्त उपयोगी सावित भएको थियो ।
पञ्चायतकाल भर नै सामान्य प्रकाशनको विषयमा पनि स्थानिय अधिकारीहरुले तारिख माथि तारिख खेपाउने अनि महँगो धरौटी तिर्नुपर्ने भएका कारण छापाखानाहरुले नयाँ प्रविधिलाई ल्याउन सकेनन् । पश्चिमा मुलुकहरु भने द्रूत गतिमा छाप्ने प्रेसको विकास भएको समयमा नेपालमा भने छापाखाना सञ्चालकलाई कारवाहीको डण्डा लागाइरहेको स्थिती थियो । यस्तो अवस्थामा जनक शिक्षा सामग्री केन्द्र लिमिटेडले विद्यालयहरुको पाठ्य पुस्तक प्रकाशन गर्ने उद्देश्यले २०२१ सालमा चार रंगको छपाइ हुने उच्चस्तरिय अफसेट प्रविधिको प्रेस ल्याएको देखिन्छ । यसरी सरकारी तहमा स्थापना गरिएका सूचना विभाग, जनक शिक्षा सामग्री केन्द्र, अनि साहित्यिक गतिविधिमा केन्द्रीत साझा प्रकाशन, अनि सरकारी मुखपत्र गोर्खापत्रका छापाखानाहरु विकसित प्रविधिलाई आत्मसात गर्न लागि रहेका थिए ।

२०३६ सालमा राजा वीरेन्द्रबाट जनमत संग्रहको घोषणा भएपछि दल विहिन भनिएको पचायतमा पनि राजनीतिक दलहरुले प्रचार प्रसार गर्न पाउने स्थिती सृजना भयो । यस समयमा छापाखानाहरु खुल्ने क्रम पनि बढेर गयो । छापाखाना सम्बन्धि व्यवस्थाहरुमा पनि खुकुलोपन आएका कारण छापाखाना भित्रने क्रम बढ्यो । यसै क्रममा लेटर प्रेस नेपालमा आएको पाइन्छ । हुन त लेटर प्रेस २०२५ साल तिर नै नेपालमा भित्रिएको थियो तर यसको मुलुकभरका छापाखानाहरुले प्रयोग गर्ने अवस्था भने २०३० को दशकामा मात्र भयो । २०३० देखी नै मुलुकमा राजनीतिक रुपमा छाएको खुलापनका कारण विभिन्न प्रेसहरुले अफसेट प्रेसहरु नेपालमा भित्र्याए । त्यसो त रंगिन छपाइपनि नेपालमा ३० को दशमा नै लोकप्रिय बनेको हो । चेक अफसेट, मिनि अफसेट लगायतका विभिन्न साना-ठूला अफसेट प्रिन्टिङ प्रेसहरु नेपालमा आए । छपाइ प्रविधिमा भएको विकासको आधुनिक स्वरूप अफसेट प्रेस हो । दश बिस हजारको हाराहारीमा पत्रिका तथा पुस्तक प्रकाशन गर्नेहरुको लागि यो आज सम्मकै उपयोगी छापा बनेको छ । यसमा फोटोग्राफिक प्रविधिबाट प्लेट तयार पारी छपाइ कार्य गरिन्छ । यसमा पहिले त सम्पर्ूण्ा सामग्रीलाई कम्प्युटरको सहायताले मुद्रण गरिन्छ । त्यसपछि त्यो सम्पर्ूण्ा सामग्रीको नेगेटिभ उतारिन्छ । त्यस नेगेटिभलाई टिनको पातामा पोजिटिभ बनाइन्छ । यस्तो पोजिटिभ प्लास्टिक प्लेट (पोलिप्लेट) मा पनि बनाउन सकिन्छ । यही पोजिटिभलाई मेसिनमा राखेर छपाइ गरिने हो । यस प्रविधिमा फोटो बनाउन केही समय लाग्दछ । तर तुलनात्मक रूपमा सस्तो, छपाइ कार्य छिटो-छरितो र सजावटमा कम्प्युटरको प्रयोग हुनाले विविधता दिन सकिने हुनाले यो प्रविधिको लोकप्रियता बढेको हो । पुरानो लेटर प्रेस प्रविधिमा ब्लकहरू बनाउनु पर्ने बाध्यता हुन्थ्यो । तर अहिले अफसेट प्रविधिमा त्यसरी ब्लक बनाइरहने झण्झट भएन । ब्लक बनाउने प्रक्रियामा समय धेरै लाग्नेमा यसको आगमनले त्यो समय बचत भयो ।
यसरी नेपालमा पहिलो आधुनिक प्रेस भित्रिएको एक सय ३८ वर्ष-२०४६सम्म)मा नेपालमा प्रेस सम्बन्धि सेवा तथा कार्यको निक्कै विकास भएको थियो । जंगबहादुरले बेलायतबाट ल्याएको प्रेसको तुलनामा २०४६ सालमा आइपुग्दा नेपाली प्रकाशनको क्षेत्रमा निक्कै नयाँ फड्कोहरु मारिएका छन् तर मुलुकको राजनीतिक व्यवस्थाका कारण तीनमा समुचित विकास हुन नसकेको देख्न सकिन्छ । हाते छपाइबाट मुलुक अफसेटको युगमा पुगिसकेको छ । युरोप त कुरै छाडौं भारतमा आइसकेका प्रविधि समेत नेपालमा आउन दशक लाग्ने स्थिती रहेको भएपनि जनमत संग्रहको समयदेखी यता तुलनात्मक रुपमा राजनीतिक खुलापनले यसको विकासलाई छेक्न सकेन । यसरी जंगबहादुरले ल्याएको प्रेस भन्दा अगाडीको नेपाली छापा प्रविधिलाई नेपालमा छापाखानाको विकास प्रतिको तत्परता र जंगबहादुरको प्रेसले आधुनिक छपाइको सुत्रपात गरेको मान्न सकिन्छ । यसरी नेपालमा २०४६ सम्म सामान्य रुपमा केही अवरोधका बाबजुद पनि छपाई प्रविधिको आगमन भएको पाइन्छ । बुद्ध प्रेसका पालामा नेपालमा नै प्रेसको विकास गरिएको भन्ने पाउन सकिन्छ तर त्यसपछि नेपाल भित्रै प्रेसको विकासका काम भएका छैनन् तर पनि अन्य देशमा भएका विकासको प्रतिफल नेपालीले पनि लिन सकेको देखिन्छ ।

सन्दर्भ सामग्री :
१. अधिकारी, निर्मलमणि, आमसञ्चार र पत्रकारिता, प्रशान्ति पुस्तक भण्डार, काठमाडौं, २०६२
२. कसजु, विनयकुमार, ऐतिहासिक गिद्धे प्रेस र औद्योगिक सङ्ग्रहालयको खाँचो, गोरखापत्र, गोरखापत्र विशेष, २०६४ वैशाख, २४
३. खनाल, श्रीराम, प्रयोगात्मक प्रत्रकारिता, विद्यार्थी प्रकाशन प्रा.लि., काठमाडौं, २०६१
४. देवकोटा, गृष्मबहादुर, नेपालको छापाखाना र पत्रपत्रिकाको इतिहास, साझा प्रकाशन, २०५९
५. नेपाल राष्ट्रिय साप्ताहिक, २०६१ साउन, ३
६. http://www.journalism.edu.np
७. Green, Philip. "Printing", Microsoft® Encarta® 2007 [CD]. Microsoft Corporation, 2006.
त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय पत्रकारिता तथा आमसञ्चार विभागमा एमए प्रथम वर्षको JMC 503 को प्रयोगात्मक परिक्षामा प्रस्तुत