Monday, October 20, 2008

History of Mass Communication in PAKISTAN

Pre- Independence

- Turning point for Indian muslims was establishment of All India Muslim League in 1906, for the promotion of muslim interest

- League inspired muslims for paper publications

- By 1925 muslim press comprised 220 various publications in Urdu, English, Bengali etc.

- In 1930 muslims began their struggle for a separate state

- Then they faced the hostility with both Hindu owned press and Anglo- Indian press .

- Mohammad Ali Jinnah helped to established Dawn English weekly in 1930 from Delhi, (Dawn became daily in 1942)

- Influencial muslim papers – Azad, Jung, Dawn,The Star of India, Morning News, Manshoor, Anjam, Nawa-e-Waqt, Eastern Times, Weekly Observer, Sindha Times, New Life, Khaiber Mail, Zamindar etc.

- Dawn shifted to Karachi from Delhi after its Delhi office attacked and burnt by anti separation groups in 1947 August .

- Jung and Anjam also shifted Karachi from Delhi

Post Independence (1947- 1958)

- Press was weak in Pakistani territory

- Only Lahore, Karachi and Dhaka were ahead

- After 1949 war between India and Pakistan on Kashmir issue, press freedom has been curtailed

- Pak.govt. believed completely free press could threaten the country’s security

- Public safety act-1949 and Security of Pakistan act-1952 were sufficient to supress the press freedom

- During the first seven years of independence Pak. Govt. banned 33 newspapers in Punjab alone

- Between 1947 to 1958 no. of periodicals- 1106, dailies- 103, weeklies and biweeklies- 379

- Circulation of dailies increased from 1, 25,000 (in1948) to more than 7 lakh (in 1958)

The Authoritarian Period (1958 – 1988)

- Field Marshal Ayub Khan came into power in 1958

- He imposed system of ‘press advice’, a power to dictate press what to publish and what not

- In 1960 decline of dailies from 103 to 74, weeklies and biweeklies from 379 to 260

- In 1959 govt. took over Lahore Progressive Paper ltd., the publisher of leading English daily Pakistan Times and leading Urdu daily Imroze

- In 1961 govt. took over APP

- In 1963 Ayub Khan imposed PPO (press and publication ordinance), ‘the blackest of the black laws’

- It gave obsolute power to govt. to supress the press and to prohibit reporting on a wide range of subjects

- Second Indo-Pak war in1965 led to declared Marshal Law and Defence of Pakistan, lasted for 20 yrs.

- After Ayub Khan, his successors Yahya Khan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Zia-ul- Haq followed the same supressive attitude towards the press.

- Situation changed after sudden death of Zia ul Haq

- Care taker govt. lifted PPO and introduced RPPPO ( registration of printing press and publication ordinance) , comparatively liberal than PPO`

- 1n 1990 govt.of Benazir Bhutto ended govt. monopoly over import and distribution of newsprint paper

- Art.19 of the constitution of Pakistan provides the freedom of press, subject to a number of restrictions

- Should not against the glory of Islam, integrity, security or defense of Pakistan, friendly relation with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, related to contempt of court, defamation.

- Official secret act, Security of Pakistan act., Maintenance of public order act etc. are sufficient to punish any news organization or journalist

- In 1995 a Lahore based free lance journalist was arrested and charged for his reporting on child labour in Pakistani carpet industries.

- In 1995 June, under Maintenance of public order ordinance, license of 122 newspapers were cancelled, but nationwide strike of journalists forced the govt. to withdraw the decision

- In 1998 editor and several journalists of Urdu daily Pakistan were arrested for publishing negative aspects of Prophet Mohammad

- RPPPO is an ordinance yet

- According to RPPPO not more than 25% foreign ownership in print media, and pre- approval by the govt. is compulsory

- News paper employees (condition of service) act –1973

Out of more than 300 dailies , 6 major dailies who have more than 1 lakh circulation-
(according to UNESCO Report)

- Jung- 8,50,000
- Nawa-e- Waqt- 5 lakh
- Pakistan-2, 80,000
- Khabarain- 2,32,000
- The News – 1,20,000
- Dawn - 1,10,000

( Circulation report may changed)
- Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad are major cities for press.

- Govt. do not owned newspapers


- After the partition, India and Pakistan divided the assests of All India Radio.

- Pakistan inherited AIR stations in Lahore, Pesawar and Dhaka

- In 1949 August, Radio Pakistan formally launched in Karachi

- Now stations in 22 places

- 100% coverage

- Broadcasting in 20 languages

- 48% entertainment, 13% religious, 11 % news and current affairs,28% socio-eco

- National news bulletin 18 times / day in Urdu and English

- Govt. controls over Radio Pakistan through Pakistan Broadcasting Corp. (1973)

- After 1995 private FM increased in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad, allegation to Benazir Bhutto for giving license only to her close persons.


- PTV launched in1964 November from Lahore

- Agrrement with Nippon Electric corp.

- Colour broadcast from 1976 Dec.

- 6 centers- Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad (2), Pesawar and Quetta

- High power broadcasting stations in 32 places

- PTV-2 from 1992

- PTV World from 1998

- PTV Middle East Channel from 1999

- PTV coverage 86% population and 38% territory

- Entertainment – 56%, News and Current aff. 16%, educational 10%, religious 8%, others 10%

- PTV broadcastes 54 % program in Urdu

- Shalimar tv network (STN)- 1989

- Approved by Benzir govt.

- 54% govt. share

- Shaheen Pay tv – 1996

- Approved by Benazir’s second govt.
- Private tv with foreign investment

- Run by Shaheen Foundation, a welfare organisation of retired air force officers

- Private tv are not permitted to produce news.

- They just replay news from PTV, BBC and CNN

- All the tv channels are regulated by Pakistan Broadcasting Act-1973


- Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) – 1948
( a part of Ministry of Information and Media Development)

- Pakistan Press International (PPI) – Private

- Many other small news organizations funded by political parties and groups.

1 Comment:

Australian telecom company said...

Communication is very important for the advancement of a nation.