Friday, May 16, 2008

Mimamsa-Philosophy and Mass Media Ethics

By: Nirmala Mani Adhikary

This article is continuation of my previous article "Exploring New Paradigm in Mass Media Ethics" (MBM Anthology of Media Studies 2007), where I argue that "being rich in philosophy and culture, Nepal has her strength to explore new paradigm" on mass media ethics (59). There I have attempted to draw attention of media academia, educators, students and professionals that we should not take media ethics merely as prescribed by and in accordance with the Western perspectives but rather should, at least theoretically in the beginning, explore native, specifically Hindu, perspectives on media ethics. After brief discussions on mass media ethics firstly and later Hindu point of view on it, I have proposed some aspects of philosophies in relation to media ethics for discussion. Moving further, here I attempt to sketch an outline of mass media ethics from Mimamsa-philosophical perspective.

Of course, such endeavor is expected in the context of Vedanta, Samkhya, Nyaya, Vaisheshika and Yoga philosophies too. Nepal represents old civilization with a known history of thousand of years and having a distinct cultural identity of its own. In this light, paying little attention to explore Hindu point of view on mass media ethics is not good. Rather, "the ethical considerations must be judged in the touchstone of concerning society and its social cultural inheritance" (Adhikary "Mass Media Ethics"). And, this will certainly bring fruitful consequences: "Understanding one's own ethical texts and one's own ethical underpinnings will establish a foundation through which communication problems can be explored and solutions can be delivered" (Babbili 173).

In recent years, Nepal has witnessed advancement in the field of mass media and journalism. Significant achievements can be located with respect to media as a profession or as an industry. Likewise, Mass Communication and Journalism or Media Studies has been incorporated as an applauded discipline of knowledge in the academy. Media ethics or journalistic ethics also has been included in the curricula. However, just as "modern communication technology has been introduced without evolving a communication philosophy, approach and policy relevant to Nepali context, conditions and needs" (Adhikary “Exploring New Paradigm” 58), the trend of studying media ethics does not seem quite enthusiastic. Just to copy and paste the Western concept of ethics as if it is a universal concept and doing nothing to understand native ethical idea is not the situation of pride. This is really annoying situation because "A society that ignores its own ethical ideal does it at its own peril" (Babbili 163).

Since mass media professionals and their community are inextricably bound together, the ethical questions of particular professional communicator must be judged against the social cultural background of the society for which the medium is aiming to work. What I am emphasizing is that ethical concern in the field of mass media including journalism is relative to the Dharma or religious faith[1] and philosophical stand-point taken by the media professionals.

Certainly, there are views denying ethics as relative or subjective and holding that ethics is "entirely independent of religion" (Singer, Peter. Practical Ethics 3) and "ethical judgments must be made from a universal point of view" (Singer, Peter. Practical Ethics 12). But we cannot ignore the very fact that the concept of ethics is inherently different in the Hindu perspective and in the West. "In the Hindu perspective, problems of ethics are treated in a distinct way" (Babbili, Anantha 147), which is different that of the West.

Hindu dharma gives outstanding importance to ethics. "Ethical perfection is the first step towards divine knowledge" (Radhakrishnan. India Philosophy. Vol I. 52). It should be very clear, in the very beginning, that Hinduism, being "doctrinally more open" (Harrison-Barbet 276), should not be considered entailing one and only standard set of ethical principles. Vedic Hinduism "comprises many diverse schools of thought. It incorporates various views, from extreme spiritual to extreme materialistic" (Adhikary Exploring New Paradigm 64). Since the Vedic Hindu philosophical tradition is extensive, rich, and complex, "it would be irrational to declare only one set of ethical guidelines as 'Vedic Hindu ethics'. Rather, we should consider that each philosophy suggests unique set of ethical guidelines. Thus it becomes individual matter to which philosophy you associate yourself"(Adhikary10).

Clearly, there is scope for different, even diverse, sets of ethical principles. As Hindery observes, "Hindu ethics is itself both diachronically and synchronically (past and present) pluralistic" (Comparative Ethics in Hindu and Buddhist Traditions 10).

However, Hindu philosophers, Rishis, Munis have always emphasized a synthesis of various schools of thought. There is "the Vedic tradition of direct experience of an all-comprehensive oneness in the midst of plurality" (Bhattacharya, Sibajiban. "The Indian Philosophical Systems: Their Basic Unity and Relevance Today" 3). And, "except a few systems upholding gross materialism and hedonism, all the systems prescribe a code of moral discipline to uplift man from animality or brutality to humanity" Shastri, Dinesh Chandra Bhattacharya. "The Indian Philosophical Systems: Their Basic Unity and Relevance Today" 92).

Since "Ethical questions are not concerned with what one would do (an essentially psychological concern) but what one ought to do" (Velasquez, Manuel and Vincent Barry 315) there should be external authority. Most Hindu ethical teachings are found in various texts from Veda to Upanishads, Puranas to Ramayana and Mahabharata, and even in poetics. "To reach the people, ethical philosophy or dharma(s) would have to be communicated in the forms of poetry, rhythm, song, dance and, most of all, in ... the figure of the 'ideal model person'" (Hindery 98).

Thus ethics for Hindus "stem from the basic Hindu religious texts that are often considered cultural and philosophical texts" (Babbili 156). Hindu ethics "appear most often as subtle manifestations of human conduct in the narrative of prominent cultural and religious texts, traditions and customs" (Babbili 158). A person of Hindu society is obligatory to follow the guidelines given by those Shastras, traditions and customs.

The Vedic scriptures contain sentences enjoining what is or is not to be done (Mohanty 22). Vedas are "creation of an age anterior to our intellectual philosophies" (Sri Aurobindo 10). They are considered "to be the truths heard (Shruti) or, in an inside-out sense, revealed. Not 'revealed' in the sense of divine, outside intervention, they were ... inwardly inspired" (Hindery, Roderick. Comparative Ethics in Hindu and Buddhist Traditions 39). Believers hold that "There is no substitute of Vedas, insofar as the code of human behavior and conduct is concerned" (Mahatma Gopal Swami Saraswati. Human Rights and The Vedas 55).

The mainstream philosophies that directly follow the Vedas tradition include:
1. Mimamsa (with sub-schools including Kumaril Bhatta's)
2. Vedanta (with sub-schools including Shakaracharya's)
3. Vaisheshika
4. Nyaya
5. Samkhya
6. Yoga

Mimamsa is "claimed to have a more authentic grip on the Vedas" (Mohanty, J.N. Explorations in Philosophy 64). "The beginnings of the Mimamsa may be traced to the Veda itself, where it is used to denote doubt and discussion regarding the rules of ritual and doctrine" (Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. Vol II. 374). The aim of the Mimamsa
is to ascertain the nature of dharma. Dharma is not a physical existent, and so it cannot be apprehended through the senses. The other pramanas are of no use, since they all presuppose the work of perception. Perception, inference and such other sources of knowledge have nothing to say on the point that the performer of the Agnistoma sacrifice will go to heaven. This knowledge is derived only from the Vedas. Though the pramana of the Veda is the only source of our knowledge of dharma, the others are considered, since it is necessary to show that they cannot give rise to a knowledge of dharma. They are also found useful in repudiating wrong views (Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. Vol II. 387-388).

The Mimamsa and Vedanta philosophies are so closely related that the former is called Purva Mimamsa and the latter Uttara Mimamsa. They take "the Vedas to be exclusive and eternal guides of human destiny (Shastra)" (Pandeya, R.C. "Pramana-Centricity" 47). Both present
only an account of what the Vedas say, hence their purpose is solely to enquire into Dharma or Brahman part of the Veda (athato-Dharma-jijnasa or athato-Brahma-jijnasa). In all matters of dispute or difference of opinion the court of final appeal is the Veda itself. They, therefore, hold Shruti as the final authority; reasoning, perception, etc. have therefore assumed auxiliary status as aids to strengthen or clarify the Vedic position. These two Mimamsas endeavor at any cost to show that there is nothing other than the Vedas which could be evidence or Pramana in all matters of human life (Pandeya, R.C. "Pramana-Centricity" 47).

The Veda is the final and supreme authority for both the Purva and the Uttara Mimamsas. "Their conviction is that in respect of super-sense truths and realities, which are not knowable by perception and even by inference, the only source of knowledge is the Shruti or the Vedas whose validity as a pramana is axiomatic (svatahsiddha)" (Shastri, Dinesh Chandra Bhattacharya. "The Indian Philosophical Systems: Their Basic Unity and Relevance Today" 87). However,
their difference lies in the aspects of the Veda chosen for consideration. In the former case the subject of preferred treatment is human conduct for the guidance of which the Veda provides evidence. In the latter case the nature of existence is a matter of investigation and the Veda is taken to be final authority (Pandeya, R.C. "Pramana-Centricity" 47).

In fact, "The dichotomy between the empirical and the transcendental, the transitory and the eternal, the worldly and the divine is the recurring theme in Hindu religio-philosophical scriptures" (Sinari, Ramakant. "The Worldly and the Transcendental in Indian Philosophy" 62). Particularly in case of worldly matters, Mimamsa is preferred over Vedanta. The influence of Mimamsa is such that there is the saying, 'vyavahare bhattanayah', that is the Bhatta Mimamsa School is the authentic one, even for the Vedanta, including Advaita Vedanta, in case of vyavaharika (secular) matters (R. Balasuramanian 24).

The importance of Mimamsa "for the Hindu religion is great. The scriptures which govern the daily life of the Hindu require to be interpreted in accordance with the Mimamsa rules. Modern Hindu law is considerably influenced by the Mimamsa system" (Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. Vol II. 375-376).

For ensuring "the proper understanding of Vedic texts" Mimamsa philosophy "has developed an elaborate and rigorous method of interpretation. This method of interpretation is applicable to not merely the Vedic texts but also Dharmashastra and legal texts" (Bhattacharya, Sibajiban. "The Indian Philosophical Systems: Their Basic Unity and Relevance Today" 11).

"The Mimamsa has a well-developed and interesting account of how ethics and the human character are interrelated" and "it analyzes ethical language in terms of our possibilities to act in particular ways" (Leaman, Oliver. Key Concepts in Eastern Philosophy 112). Though Manusmriti "is the most often quoted 'source book' of Hindu ethics" (Hammer, Raymond. "Karma and Dharma: Hindu Ethics" 190) Mimamsa is crucial in this regard because Hindu ethics is related with the Dharma and "the avowed aim of the Purva Mimamsa is to examine the nature of dharma" (Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. Vol II. 375).
Dharma is the scheme of right living. Jaimini defines dharma as an ordinance or command. Chodana, or injunction, is the lakshana or sign of dharma. It is the jurist's definition of law. According to Sabara, chodana denotes utterances which impel men to action. The 'ought' has an external source, since duties are revealed to us by a power not ourselves. The word 'chodana' has another meaning, namely, inspiration or impulsion from within. What appeals to heart within agress with what is commanded from without. The individual's will and the verdict of the race agreee. ...
The ethics of the Purva Mimamsa is founded on revelation. The Vedic injunctions lay down the details of dharma. Good action, according to the Mimamsaka, is what is prescribed by the Veda. (Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. Vol II. 417-418).

If any scripture is in conflict with the Veda, then such scripture is to be disregarded and the Vedic point of view is to be considered (Adhikary Mimamsa-Darshan Nirdeshan 11-12). To be ethical, one must abide by the 'chodana' of Veda. So Mimamsakas accept Smriti texts only to the extent they are in accordance with the Shruti. "Next to the Smritis is the practice of good men or custom" (Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. Vol II. 418). By all means, Mimamsa insists that the life of a human being has to be governed by the rules of the Vedas. In accordance, Manusmriti says: "The whole Veda is the first source of the sacred law, next the tradition and the virtuous conduct of those who know the (Veda further), also the customs of holy men, and (finally) self-satisfaction" (Manusmriti II.6. Trans. taken from Hindery 76).

"Ethics during the Vedic period espoused obedience to divine law: Rita" (Babbili 158). Etymologically, Rita is "related both to rite and right" and "refers variously to order at three levels: 1. nature (cosmic order), 2. sacrificial or ritual order, and 3. the order of human conduct" (Hindery, Roderick. Comparative Ethics in Hindu and Buddhist Traditions 50).

Turning to the ethics of the Rig-Veda,
we find that the conception of Rita is of great significance. It is the anticipation of the law of karma ... It is the law which pervades the whole world, which all gods and men must obey. ...
Rita furnishes us with a standard of morality. It is the universal essence of things. It is the satya or the truth of things. Disorder or An-Rita is falsehood, the opposite of truth. The good are those who follow the path of Rita, the true and the ordered. Ordered conduct is called a true vrata. Vratani are the ways of life of good men who follow the path of Rita. Consistency is the central feature of a good life. The good man of the Vedas does not alter his ways. ... When ritual grew in importance, Rita became a synonym for yajna or sacrificial ceremony (Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. Vol I. 109-110).

The term Rita was succeeded by dharma "in the later Vedic Age connoting the same meaning" (Zaehner, R.C. Hinduism 30). In contemporary Hindu society, "ethics cannot be understood without locating them in a broad definition of religion" (Babbili 154). Here, "religion, esthetics and ethics have remained better integrated" (Hindery, Roderick. Comparative Ethics in Hindu and Buddhist Traditions 9). It is relevant to take the note that the major element of Hindu ethics developed in the Gita, too, is the concept of dharma (Babbili 161).

The dharma in the Vedic Hindu context should be understood at its proper sense. "Among its more general meanings, dharma also refers to a whole way of life rather than to mere doctrines or moral teachings alone" (Hindery, Roderick. Comparative Ethics in Hindu and Buddhist Traditions 50). The underlying central idea of dharma is
that a human being though a creature of the evolutionary process, is distinguished from other animal species by their endowment of reflective capacity which enables them to discriminate between the Good and the Evil. ... Humans can exercise their free-will in choosing the right against wrong. In other words, dharma postulates that humans possess general moral sense.
As the idea of moral choices inherent in the concept of dharma, the term dharma may be understood as representing the moral principle which lends human life its worth and makes for the meaningfulness of the system that has been evolved to support human life (Rai, Lal Deosa. Human Rights in the Hindu-Buddhist Tradition 51).

Religion here "is not dogmatic. It is a rational synthesis which goes on gathering into itself new conceptions as philosophy progresses. It is experimental and provisional in its nature, attempting to keep pace with the progress of thought" (Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. Vol I. 25). "The supremacy of religion and of social tradition in life does not hamper the free pursuit of philosophy" (Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. Vol I. 27).

Vedas do not advocate any religion, in the sense, the English word of Latin-origin, religion, is understood in modern parlance. But
they do point out 'dharma' meaning duties and essential characteristics, without which a thing cannot retain its very existence. Religion may be a personal affair owing its allegiance to personal beliefs and convictions of a person, but 'dharma' is a universal affair. ... Righteous people, adhering to Vedas, therefore, consider the whole world as one family. Vedas expect every human being to be humane in true sense and thus advocate 'humanism' as the dharma of entire humanity. 'Be humane and humanize others'; this is clarion call of the Vedas since eternity (Mahatma Gopal Swami Saraswati. Human Rights and The Vedas 55-56).

It is in this light a typical dharmik Hindu thinks,
Religion has been pervading human life from times immemorial. Every tiny act that a man does is looked upon from a religious point of view. All human institutions are more or less based on religious sentiments. It is one of the most undeniable facts of psychology that an average man can as little exist without a religious element of some kind as a fish without water (Swami Vidyananda Saraswati. Vedic Concept of God 32).

The dharma of Mimamsa is always associated with the karma. "Karma(n) is a Sanskrit word meaning simply 'act', 'deed', or 'work'. The 'theory' of karma, if we may call it such, is that every action must produce its inevitable 'fruit'; good actions produce good fruit, evil actions evil fruit" (Zaehner, R.C. "Introduction." Hindu Scriptures. xv-xvi). The importance given to karma by Mimamsa can be assessed from Mimamsa's belief that the law of karma can function on its own even in the absence of God (R. Balasuramanian 19). The karmayoga is the essence of Mimamsa philosophy which holds that "when duty is performed in a spirit of dedication to God it becomes the cause of emancipation" (Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. Vol II. 420). "Morality, fair play, ethics and justice are the basis of karma yoga" (Krishnamurthy, V. Essentials of Hinduism 82).
Ethics in Hindu society is not detached from the dharma. ... Hindu ethics consists a highly refined moral sensibility visualized with standards of character and conduct. Hindu classical philosophers often think about ethics in connection with the notion of karma, and reincarnation. Since, on the presumption of karma, the nature of one's deeds determines one's future state, the universe includes laws of moral payback (Adhikary "Exploring New Paradigm" 66).
Obviously, an ideal Hindu is supposed to follow "without question the universal law of dharma and the particular law of karma" (Babbili 162).

"The freedom of the human individual is assumed, though the limitations of karma are mentioned" (Radhakrishnan, S. Ed. The Principal Upanisads 105). "Right and wrong are determined in four ways: through the authoritative scriptures, through the other inspired writings, through good conduct and through conscience" (Raymond Hammer 190). "The context is significant in deciding how to act, according to the Gita" (Leaman, Oliver. Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings 135). "The ethical individual is required to become like a child. The perfect man is a divine child, accepting the divine play, without fear or reserve, care or grief, in utter purity" (Radhakrishnan, S. Ed. The Principal Upanisads 111). Perhaps it is in such stage when a person becomes able to experience the dharma of the good which is within the heart of every person.

It is argued that "The duties of Hindu ethical life consisted primarily of the prescribed caste-duties and the specific duties of the different stages of life" (Leaman, Oliver. Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings 133-134). However, "Hindu ethics is not absolutist and unbending, but is reflective and contextual in its approach to ethical problems" (Babbili 163). Moreover, "The scope of Hindu ethics not only covers human beings, but also extends far more. For instance, the Srimadbhagavat says that since animals are capable of experiencing pain, humans have an obligation not to harm them" (Adhikary Studying Mass Media Ethics 10).

Studying mass media ethics from Mimamsa-philosophical perspective should not be viewed mere theoretical endeavor. In Hindu society, "Philosophy was never conceived as a merely theoretical exercise for the sake of conceptual clarity," rather with "a practical aim to achieve" (Bhattacharya, Sibajiban. "The Indian Philosophical Systems: Their Basic Unity and Relevance Today" 4). Vedic Hindu philosophies "subscribe to the view of the unity of theory and practice" (Balasubramanian, R. "Advaita Vedanta: Its Unity with Other Systems and Its Contemporary Relevance" 16).

In Bharatavarsha, "the Philosopher did not merely think Philosophy and talk Philosophy but also lived Philosophy. The truths of Philosophy were sought to be translated into living experiences by strenuous moral and spiritual exertions" (Sen, Biswanath. "Nyaya View of Perception of Composite Objectives" 75). "All the systems agree that knowledge and action are intimately connected" (Sen, Biswanath. "Nyaya View of Perception of Composite Objectives" 77). That is why the Vedic Hindu mind "constantly engaged in theorizing about practice" (Mohanty 25).

In Bharatavarsha "darshana (philosophy) has a tradition of totality and integralism. The instruction of preceptors and systems of vision combine rational investigation, logic and epistemology in a fuller acceptance of life" (Das, Maya. "Indian Philosophical Systems: Their Basic Unity and Relevance Today" 93). Hindu philosophies
basically represent 'a way of life', an approach to spiritual realization rather than a mere 'view of life'. The approach makes the philosophical systems both humanistic and scientific, practical and theoretical. Correlating vision and sadhana the systems lead to a correct 'way of thinking' as well as 'a right way of living' (Das, Maya. "Indian Philosophical Systems: Their Basic Unity and Relevance Today" 93).

As to Kautilya, philosophy has its practical use: "it does good to mankind, makes one's intelligence, buddhi, settled in the midst of pleasure and pain and makes one expert, visarada, in wisdom (prajna), in speech (vakya) and in action (kriya)" (Mohanty 21). There must be insistence "on justifying philosophy in terms of Prayojana or practical utility" (Das, Maya 94). Thus, developing a code of ethics for journalists and other media professionals based particularly on Mimamsa philosophy seems not only rational, it also seems in coherence with the practical nature of Mimamsa.

Works Cited

Adhikary, Nirmala Mani. "Exploring New Paradigm in Mass Media Ethics." MBM Anthology of Media Studies. Kathmandu: CSC, Madan Bhandari Memorial College, 2007. 57-72.
---. "Mass Media Ethics." Space Time Today 18 March 2003.
---. Mimamsa-Darshan Nirdeshan. Kathmandu: Prashanti Pustak Bhandar, 2006 (2062 B.S.).
---. Studying Mass Media Ethics. Kathmandu: Prashanti Pustak Bhandar, 2006.
Babbili, Anantha. "Culture, Ethics, and Burdens of History: Understanding the Communication Ethos in India." Critical Issues in Communication. Eds. Srinivas R. Melkote and Sandhya Rao. New Delhi: Sage, 2001. 144-176.
Balasubramanian, R. "Advaita Vedanta: Its Unity with Other Systems and Its Contemporary Relevance." Indian Philosophical Systems. The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture: Calcutta, 1990. 15-34.
Bhattacharya, Sibajiban. "The Indian Philosophical Systems: Their Basic Unity and Relevance Today." Indian Philosophical Systems. The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. Calcutta, 1990. 1-14.
Das, Maya. "Indian Philosophical Systems: Their Basic Unity and Relevance Today." Indian Philosophical Systems. The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. Calcutta, 1990. 93-98.
Hammer, Raymond. "Karma and Dharma: Hindu Ethics." The World Religions. Eds. R. Pieree Beaver et al. Oxford: Lion Publishing, 1994.
Harrison-Barbet, Anthony. Mastering Philosophy. London: Macmillan, 1990.
Hindery, Roderick. Comparative Ethics in Hindu and Buddhist Traditions. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass Publishers, 2004.
Krishnamurthy, V. Essentials of Hinduism. New Delhi: Narosa Publishing House, 1989.
Leaman, Oliver. Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings. London: Routledge, 2004.
Leaman, Oliver. Key Concepts in Eastern Philosophy. London: Routledge, 2004.
Mohanty, J.N. Explorations in Philosophy. Vol. I. Ed. Bina Gupta. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Pandeya, R.C. "Pramana-Centricity." Indian Philosophical Systems. The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. Calcutta, 1990. 46-52.
Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy. Vol I. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.
---. Indian Philosophy. Vol II. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.
---. Ed. The Principal Upanisads. New Delhi: INDUS, 1996.
Rai, Lal Deosa. Human Rights in the Hindu-Buddhist Tradition. Jaipur: Nirala Publications, 1995.
Saraswati, Mahatma Gopal Swami. Human Rights and The Vedas. New Delhi: Siddharth and Milan, 2001.
Saraswati, Swami Vidyananda. Vedic Concept of God. Delhi: Vijayakumar Govindaram Hasananda, 2001.
Sen, Biswanath. "Nyaya View of Perception of Composite Objectives." Indian Philosophical Systems. The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. Calcutta, 1990. 75-85.
Shastri, Dinesh Chandra Bhattacharya. "The Indian Philosophical Systems: Their Basic Unity and Relevance Today." Indian Philosophical Systems. The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. Calcutta, 1990. 86-98.
Sinari, Ramakant. "The Worldly and The Transcendental in Indian Philosophy." Indian Philosophical Systems. The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. Calcutta, 1990. 57-74.
Singer, Peter. Practical Ethics. 2nd ed. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Sri Aurobindo. The Secret of the Veda. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1998.
Velasquez, Manuel and Vincent Barry. Philosophy. 3rd ed. Belmont: Wadsworth, 1988.
Zaehner, R.C. Hinduism. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1966.
---. Hindu Scriptures. London: Everyman Publishers, 1992.

[1] Some readers may associate the Dharma here with the religious faith. However, my preference generally is to distinguish between Dharma and religion. I am convinced that the word Dharma can not be translated into English.

FIRST PUBLISHED IN Bodhi (Vol. I, No. 1, 2007), a journal published by the Department of Languages and Mass Communication, Kathmandu University.